Join discussions in order to build understanding of concepts in service science. Here is our curriculum guide.
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Currently, I am working on a new “science of cognitive computing” curriculum for IBM with our partner universities and others to allow people of all ages to design, build, understand, and work with cognitive mediators. The curriculum is inspired in part by the work of Douglas Engelbart, an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer, who urged us to work quickly to augment human intellect to address complex, urgent problems.
Initially, we plan to use the curriculum to show people how to design and build cognitive mediators that augment their personal and professional memories and suggest profitable connections and conversations between people – a type of relationship-oriented computing. Later, we plan to use the curriculum to help people understand how intelligence (capabilities to perform useful tasks) develops in people and machines using specific data sets and learning algorithms, both unsupervised (evolution) and supervised (culture) algorithms. Finally, we plan to use the curriculum to help people explore how best to work with their cognitive mediators, individually and collectively.
A smart service system can be viewed as a type of sociotechnical system in which most people are augmented with cognitive mediators to get and give service offerings. Cognitive mediators begin to address some of the problems associated with “bounded rationality” in decision making – the condition noted by Herbert Simon, a Nobel Prize laureate, was an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, psychologist, and computer scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science, computer science, public administration, economics, management, philosophy of science, sociology, and political science, unified by studies of decision-making. Cognitive mediators can help facilitate value co-creation and capability co-elevation interactions between service system entities at multiple scales. A wise service system goes beyond smart, to improve multi-scale entity interaction opportunities generation over generation improving individual and collective quality of life into the future.
Ideally, the new curriculum will inspire students and professionals to see the world more like Douglas Engelbart (opportunity to augmented the intellect of people individually and collectively to address complex, urgent problems) and Herbert Simon did (opportunity to use physical-symbol-systems to overcome some of the challenges faced by people with bounded rationality, who are making decisions in diverse types of organizations, ranging from families to businesses to nations). They both had a transdisciplinary or future-ready T-shaped perspective, and saw the world as interacting physical-symbol-systems with great potential to use technology to improve how people interact with each other in organizations. They both saw the world as people interacting socially and economically to solve problems, with more and more advanced technologies being designed to facilitate those interactions. Technology was seen by both Engelbart and Simon as a great enabler of improved interactions and decision-making between people in business and society, especially value co-creation and capability co-elevation interactions between entities at multiple scales, personal, business, and national levels of entity interactions.
A goal of some members of the artificial intelligence community is develop intelligent entities with self-awareness, and the capability to collectively establish appropriate, ethical rights and responsibilities between intelligent interacting entities. The best starting point is the book The Sciences of the Artificial. For modern techniques, see the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. A good starting point to understand self-awareness in intelligent systems (physical-symbol-systems) is the online article Cognitive Economy.
A goal of some members of the cognitive science community is to understand the development and functioning of intelligence in people. The best starting points are the two books Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures and Things That Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine, as well as the online article Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.
A goal of the community developing the new curriculum is to help all interested people design-build, understand, and work with their own personal cognitive mediator, to augment human intellect to address complex, urgent problems (Engelbart) and to systematically address some of the problems of bounded-rationality in decision-making (Simon). Recently, it has been suggested that the development of Software Social Organisms: Implications for Measuring AI Progress has benefits for the advancement of knowledge in all academic disciplines.
IBM has initially termed the new curriculum – “the science of cognitive computing.”
However, more broadly the new curriculum is intended to empower all interested people to learn about the design, engineering, management, public policy, and especially the science of personal and professional cognitive mediators (intelligent systems, cognitive computing, smart machines) for all business and societal roles.
The curriculum will be especially useful to learners who wish to understand and enhance the beneficial impact of cognitive mediators in business and society as part of smart service systems. The curriculum is being developed with the intention to help everyone understand and benefit from intelligent technology (cognitive computing) that enables the use of personal and professional cognitive mediators to enhance social and economic interactions between people.
* Spohrer J, Banavar G (2015). Cognition as a Service: An Industry Perspective. AI Magazine. 36(4): 71-86.
* The complete Winter 2015 issue of AI Magazine can be accessed here: http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/issue/view/212/showToc
* Spohrer J (2016). Innovation for Jobs with Cognitive Assistants: A Service Science Perspective. In “Disrupting Unemployment: Reflection on a Sustainable, Middle Class Economic Recovery,” editors Nordfors D, Cerf V, Senges M. Kansas City, MO USA: Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Pp. 157-174.
* The complete book is available on Amazon here http://www.amazon.com/Disrupting-Unemployment-David-Nordfors/dp/152384583X
* Spohrer J, Bassano C, Piciochhi P, Siddike MAK (2016). What Marks a System Smart? Wise? Proceedings of AHFE Human-Side of Service Engineering (HSSE) Conference.
* The concept of smart service system has been an exploratory development of the USA National Science Foundation, and a number of major universities and companies, and government organizations from around the world.
* MIT-NSF Event: http://web.mit.edu/mitssrc/nsf/
* NSF LinkedIn group: https://www.linkedin.com/groups/5109582
* HICSS Conference tracks: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/innovations-smart-service-systems-analytics-big-data-haluk-demirkan
A colleague of mine, whom I have great respect for, just sent a fascinating email to a group of global computer science researchers as well as social science and policy making scholars. He wrote in part:
Building robust cognitive systems requires moving beyond task-specific systems, to cognitive architectures where the same system (1) handles multiple tasks, (2) takes an active role in its own learning, and (3) does so over weeks, months, and years without humans who understand its internals in the loop. Of those three things, the first has been done to a limited degree, in that cognitive architectures are capable of doing many tasks.
>>> Opinion: For those with more time to read…
I agree with: “(1) handles multiple tasks, (2) takes an active role in its own learning,”
I disagree with: “(3) does so over weeks, months, and years without humans who understand its internals in the loop.”
Our processes for building robust cognitive systems in academia, industry, and government are not open, agile, or thoughtful enough yet to make rapid and purposeful progress IMHO.
A new teaching curriculum for education, a new discovery process for research, and a new political philosophy for why we are doing this work for economic and societal good are all three much needed.
Picture instead a large population of cognitive entities cooperating… watching and learning from each other – both people and machines.
Reframing “taking an active role its own learning” as Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) for test-taking machines and people would greatly accelerate purposeful progress.
=== Reframing hard problems with better processes: A good example
For those with an interest in reframing hard problems with better processes – this is a good example and fun read (though I prefer learn-faster to fail-quicker in the title)…
MacCready’s insight was that everyone who was working on solving human-powered flight would spend upwards of a year building an airplane on conjecture and theory without a base of knowledge based on empirical tests. Triumphantly, they would complete their plane and wheel it out for a test flight. Minutes later, a year’s worth of work would smash into the ground.
Even in successful flights, the flight would end with the pilot physically exhausted just a couple hundred meters later. With that single new data point, the team would work for another year to rebuild, re-test, and re-learn. Progress was slow for obvious reasons, but that was to be expected in pursuit of such a difficult vision. That’s just how it was, went the common thinking.
The problem was the problem. MacCready realized that what needed to be solved was not, in fact, human-powered flight. That was a red herring. The problem was the process itself. And a negative side effect was the blind pursuit of a goal without a deeper understanding of how to tackle deeply difficult challenges. He came up with a new problem that he set out to solve: How can you build a plane that could be rebuilt in hours, not months?
By thoughtful and purposeful, I mean simultaneously improving people’s skills and machines’ capabilities, in this case for taking-tests.
“Why do one and not both?” Prof. Elliot Soloway (then at Yale, now at University of Michigan) once asked me.
This is the question that shifted my research work at Yale in the 1980’s from building intelligent systems to building tutoring systems with better student models.
Spohrer JC, Riesbeck CK. 1984. ESAU ( Economic Story Analyzer and Understanding): Reasoning-driven memory modification in the economics domain. Yale University. Department of Computer Science.
Doctoral research & later book.
Spohrer, J.C., 1989. Marcel: a generate-test-and-debug (gtd) impasse/repair model of student programmers. Yale University. Department of Computer Science.
Spohrer JC. 1992. MARCEL: Simulating the novice programmer. Intellect Books.
Done right, with the right processes, it is possible to accelerate progress both for people’s skills and machines’ capabilities – value co-creation and capability co-elevation is the basis of service science, an area I have been researching for several years now: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=7T2Pz1YAAAAJ
New teaching curriculum, discovery process, and political philosophy are much needed IMHO.
Of course, this was the focus of the life work of Doug Engelbart, see Augmenting Human Intellect, whom I met when I arrived in Silicon Valley in the 1990’s. Attaching two photographs of Doug – one at work and one when he was much younger
Startups are hard work and most will fail.
However, most students and early career professionals will become more future-ready T-shaped adaptive innovators if they work hard and learn fast at one or more startups.
Steve Miller (IBM Analytics) sent me these interesting reads:
Check out one experience about how hard it really is to spin up a company.
A good list of successful ones in terms of raising money.
Doug Engelbart is most well-known for the invention of the mouse, and being an internet pioneer (the first leg of the internet connected to his lab in California).
However, for those who know his work, these contributions are not the most significant.
Doug’s vision for improving improvement to better tackle complex, urgent problems is to many his most significant contribution.
Here is one of Doug Engelbart’s papers on that topic:
My favorite quote from that paper is this:
The shovel is a tool, and so is a bulldozer. Neither works on its own, “automating” the task of digging. But both tools augment our ability to dig. And the one that provides the greatest augmentation, not surprisingly, takes the most training and experience in order to use it really effectively.
The capability infrastructure requires the co-evolution of the tool system and the human system as Doug so simply put it.
The above paper was part of the 2003 IBM Research – Almaden, San Jose, CA event:
More pointers to that event below….
Dear T-Summit enthusiast,
Thanks for your interest in and contributions to past T-Summits.
We are collecting extended abstract/short 4-page papers now for an ISSIP BEP T-Summit book (http://www.issip.org/issip-partnership/).
First draft submissions should be sent to BEPEditors@issip.org by May 1st.
Authors will be notified by August 1st or sooner, if their short paper will be included or needs revision.
T-Summit short paper topics include:
– What is a T-shaped professionals? What institutions hire T-shapes? What institutions create T-shapes?
– How and why do T-shapes make the best adaptive innovators? the best entrepreneurs? the best life-long learners?
– Breadth and depth of knowledge, skills, and competencies, combined with 21st Century mindset, and knowledge of self and others in large co-creation networks
– Transformational change of education to create graduates and lifelong learners with T-shaped skills
– Project-based and experiential learning, with industry-academic-government-and-professional-association collaboration and badges
– 21st Century (Cognitive Era) mindset, how success is determined more by what we can do with our knowledge, than simply how much we know
– What is a T-shaped mindset? How does empathy, growth mindset, design thinking, systems thinking, service thinking combine in T-shapes?
– How early should education begin cultivating T-shaped mindsets in students? How best can it be done at different ages and skill levels?
– What simple and sophisticated faculty best practices can help students learn teamwork?
– What do industry practitioners need to do to help cultivate and mentor T-shaped students and peers?
– What public policy can help promote the transformation needed in education, industry, government, and professional associations to promote T-shaped development?
– What can students do to develop at T-shapes, and help their institutions and network better evolve towards and embrace the T-model?
– Other T-shaped related topics and questions.
ISSIP BEP T-Summit Book Team
Haluk Demirkan, Yassi Moghaddam, Phil Gardner, Jim Spohrer
The 9th International Conference on Service Science (ICSS 2016)
Theme: Cognitive Service Science and Big Services
October 15-16, 2016, Chongqing, China
Chongqing University, China
Technical Committee of Services Computing, China Computer Federation (CCF)
International Conference on Service Science (ICSS) is an annual academic event initiated by IBM and directed by the Advisory and Steering Committee on Serviceology in China, and is also one of the top events of service science community in China. ICSS features a unique mix of academic, industrial, and cross-discipline topics, and provides a platform for the presentation and exchange of research results and practical experiences as well as education development on serviceology. ICSS also aims at bridging the perspectives of researchers and the needs of practitioners. The speakers in the conference include many of the leading service science experts from both academia and service industries around the world.
Service Science, an emerging cross-discipline area, addresses key research and practice issues in developing modern service industries. ICSS focuses on the complementary and synergistic aspects of established fields such as computer science, informatics, software engineering, operation research, industrial engineering, management science, social and cognitive sciences, which are expected to contribute to the further development of service sciences. Furthermore, ICSS also encourages exploring and studying scientific and practical issues that are fundamental to the service sector including management theories and techniques with unique service perspectives.
The previous eight ICSS events were successfully held at Beijing (2008 and 2009), Hangzhou (2010), Taipei (2011), Shanghai (2012), Shenzhen (2013), Wuxi (2014), and Weihai (2015). Over 100 experts around the world attended each of the ICSS conferences. Following this trend, ICSS 2016 will be held in Chongqing, a major city in Southwest China and one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China.
ICSS 2016 aims to bring together scholars and students, researchers and managers of serviceology related areas and industries for intellectual exchanges, research cooperation, education and professional development. ICSS 2016 will offer keynote speeches and three tracks (research track, application, industry and education track, work-in-progress track), for inviting presentations of theoretical research findings and case study in service science and its related fields, and also offers excellent networking opportunities to participants, with a wonderful taste of local culture in Chongqing.
Junliang Chen, Professor of BUPT, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Fuqing Yang, Professor of Peking University, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Xiaofei Xu, Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology
Xiaowei Shen, Director, IBM Research China
Dan Yang, Professor, Chongqing University
Weiping Li, Professor, Peking University
Qingyu Xiong, Professor, Chongqing University
Zhongjie Wang, Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology
The ICSS 2016 research track seeks original, unpublished research papers reporting substantive new work in various aspects of services science, management, engineering, and technology. Research papers must properly cite related work and clearly indicate their contributions to the field of serviceology and related fields. All topics relevant to serviceology are of interest, but the conference program committee particularly encourages submissions in the following categories:
Application, Industry and Education Track
The Applications, Industry and Education Track papers should generally have results from (ideally) real world development, deployment, and experiences delivering solutions of serviceology whereas research track papers should generally have either theoretical results or early implementation/prototype demonstrations. Additionally, an Applications, Industry and Education track paper can be structured like an “experience report” paper where one important section is “Lessons learned” or general advices gained from the experience. Other appropriate sections are general background on the solutions, overview of the solutions, and directions for future innovation and improvements.
Working-In-Progress (WIP) Track
The ICSS 2016 WIP track provides a forum for attendees to illustrate and discuss their latest services computing related plans, projects, and advances, even when implementation or deployment has not been fully completed. However, the work should be advanced enough as to allow attendees to appreciate its scope and significance. Submissions may target on any topic related to the conference, describing on-going work at your institution. The Work-in-Progress papers will be an important way of sharing what is happening in serviceology research and applications, so please feel free to submit your papers to ICSS 2016.
Call for Paper Release: February 6, 2016
Submission Due: May 15, 2016
Notification of Acceptance: July 15, 2016
Camera Ready Copy Due: August 10, 2016
Author Registration Due: August 10, 2016
Conference Date: October 15-16, 2016
Accepted papers (except those papers that are recommended to above list of journals) will be included in the conference proceedings which will be published by IEEE CPS and will be included in IEEE Xplore and the IEEE Computer Society (CSDL) digital libraries. IEEE will arrange for indexing through IEE INSPEC, EI (Compendex), Thomson ISI, and other indexing services.
High quality research papers and case studies are invited to be submitted through the following link:
Each paper will be rigorously reviewed by three members of the program committee based on relevance to ICSS, significance, originality, technical soundness and clarity of presentation. All submissions must be original work and must not have been published elsewhere and must not be currently under consideration by any other conferences or journals. Submitting a paper means that, if the paper is accepted, at least one author will pay the registration fee and attend the conference to present the paper. ICSS 2016 enforces a “no show” policy and only papers that are presented by an author/co-author at the conference will be sent for inclusion in the IEEE digital libraries or journals.
Each submission should meet the following requirements:
ICSS 2016 will offer one Best Paper award and one Best Student Paper award. The best papers are selected from the accepted papers of the research track.
Dr. Jun Zeng Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
“Service Transformation in Industrial Companies”
in the International Journal of Production Research
It is our pleasure to inform you that the deadline for submitting an abstract to the special issue “Service Transformation in Industrial Companies” in the International Journal of Production Research has been postponed to April 15th, 2016. Please find below and attached more information about the special issue.
The distinctive feature of this Special Issue (SI) is on understanding how manufacturing companies are mastering their service transformation. The SI will heavily rely on papers which provide real, concrete and tangible evidence of lessons learned from industrial companies which have either benefitted or conversely suffered from their endeavor during their servitization journey.
Contributions will mainly rely on high-quality original unpublished research, industrial case studies, surveys, panels, multi-stakeholder projects.
Submitted papers have to comply with the philosophy of the journal. Potential topics include but are not limited to:
Service (open) innovation
Product-service strategy and new business models
Methods and tools to support the servitization shift
Role of education in the future of service economy
Software-based services in the digital era
Complex service network management
Service performance management
Role of data in service design, deployment and enhancement
The role of key enabling technologies (additive manufacturing, IoT, cloud computing or cognitive science) in service transformation
Change management in service transformation
Service operations and value chains
Product-service systems engineering
MAIN RELEVANT DATES
Submission of extended abstract (2 pages): February 29th, 2016 -> April 15th, 2016
Notification of acceptance for submission of full paper: March 31st, 2016-> May 15th, 2016
Submission of full paper: June, 30th 2016 -> July 31st, 2016
Publication of the Special Issue (electronic version): Spring 2017- confirmed Spring 2017
More information and details are available in the attached file and at:
Alice Rondini on behalf of
Prof. Sergio Cavalieri, PhD
Director CELS – Research Group on Industrial Engineering, Logistics and Service Operations
University of Bergamo
Viale Marconi, 5 – I-24044 Dalmine (BG)
Zied M. Ouertani, PhD
ABB Corporate Research
Wallstadter Straße 59
Phone: +49 6203 716041
Fax: +49 6203 716253
Jiang Zhibin, Ph.D, IIE Fellow
Changjiang Scholar Program Chair Professor （MOE）
Dean, MOOCs Institute;
Chair Professor and Head, Department of Industrial Engineering & Management;
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
800 Dong Chuan Rd, Min Hang District, 200240 Shanghai, China
+86-21 34206409 (phone);
+86-21 34206477 (fax)
This call for chapters just in again:
forthcoming book titled:
Engineering and Management of Data Centers: an IT Service Management Approach
Dear colleagues interested in Data Centers and high related topics (ITSM,
IT Architecture, IT Management, DevOps, among others):
We call for chapters proposals (title, authors, a 500-word abstract, and
main references) for the forthcoming book titled: “Engineering and
Management of Data Centers: an IT Service Management Approach”, which will be published in the prestigious book series: “Service Science: Research
and Innovations in the Service Economy” edited by Springer-Verlag, London
March 15, 2016 – (optional) submission deadline for chapter proposals
May 31, 2016 – full chapter submission deadline.
July 15, 2016 – editorial decision deadline (accepted, conditioned or
August 15, 2016 – conditioned chapter submission deadlines.
September 15, 2016 – editorial decision deadline on conditioned chapters.
September 31, 2016 – camera-ready chapter submission deadline.
First 2017 quarter – estimated publishing period.
Full CFP can be reached at:
Thanks for interest !
Jorge Marx Gómez, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany
Manuel Mora, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico
Rory O’Connor, Dublin City University, Ireland
Wolfgang Nebel, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany
Mahesh Raisinghani, Texas Woman’s University, USA
Manuel Mora, EngD.
Full Professor and Researcher Level C
ACM Senior Member / SNI Level I
Department of Information Systems
Autonomous University of Aguascalientes
Ave. Universidad 940
Deadline extended to March 28!!!
Save the Dates
The 11th Annual Meeting of the
Service Management and Science Forum
June 24 -26, 2016
Swinburne University of Technology
Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA
The Service Management and Science Forum is a transdisciplinary meeting involving academics and practitioners from all disciplines and organizations that focus on service delivery processes and the service systems that support them. The conference has attracted a number of established researchers across operations, marketing, information technology, design, engineering, and human resource management from higher education institutions and businesses.
The explosion in the use of social media by individuals and organizations provides opportunities for service scientists to examine the role that social media potentially might have in the delivery of quality service. Recently, Aral, Dellarocas & Godes (2013, p. 9) have noted:
There is, currently, little understanding with respect to the best ways in which companies should organize and manage social media. There is no consensus with respect to how responsibility for social media should be allocated within organizations, how social media activities should be funded and governed, what should be outsourced, and what broader changes with regard to an organization’s structures, processes, leadership, training, and culture are needed to harness the potential of the transformative force. There is no established path of activities that lead a company down the path of “social readiness,” and there are no widely accepted industry-specific best practices.
Together with social media data, Big Data and technology are dramatically changing customer service expectations and customer service experiences. One of the major fuels of this change is the emerging field of business analytics. Business analytics provides the tools to predict, report, and enhance the customer service experience.
This conference therefore encourages submissions that focus not only on the management of services in the era of social media but also business analytics, and especially submissions that are at the intersection of the two.
Individuals from academia, business and government are invited to submit refereed research papers, non-refereed research abstracts, and proposals for workshops, panels, and symposia. All submissions should have a clear focus on service management and are encouraged to be transdisciplinary in nature; that is, they should involve more than a single traditional discipline. Submissions consistent with the theme of social media in service management are particularly encouraged, but any topic appropriate to service management and/or service science will be welcome.
There will be a special issue of Service Science with the same focus as this Forum, and will have the title “Managing Service in the Era of Social Media and the Role of Business Analytics.” Selected refereed papers submitted to the 2016 Service Management and Science Forum will be invited to be submitted for this special issue. The deadline for this special issue will be October, 2016.
The 4th International Conference on Serviceology (ICServ2016)
Data: Sept 6(Tue)-8(Thu), 2016
Place: Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
We are pleased to inform you the 4th international conference on Serviceology (ICServ2016) held in Tokyo.
The main goal of this conference is to provide opportunities for the researchers
from academia and industry to share the latest technologies, methodologies, and case studies
toward co-creation of services in a sustainable society.
We are looking forward to your submission!
Topic of Interests
– Service innovation
– Service design
– Service marketing
– Service management and operations
– Theoretical perspectives on Service
– Value co-creation & context
– Service eco-system
– Human-centered service system
– Service engineering & technologies
– Servitization and produtization
– Service economics & policy
– Service practices (healthcare, tourism, education, communication, retail, food service, contents service, etc.)
The following special organized sessions are also being planned.
– S3FIRE Project
– Meaningful Technology for Seniors
Important Dates (tentative)
– April 15: Extended abstract (2-4 pages) submission deadline
– May 15: Notification of acceptance
– July 15: Camera Ready paper due
(Please note that at least one of the authors must register for the conference paying registration fees
by July 15th and submit Camera Ready paper with your registration receipt number.)
– July 15: Early Registration deadline
– Aug. 25: On-line Registration deadline
– Sept. 6(Tue)-8(Thu): Conference
Those who want to present your papers should submit an extended abstract first.
The format of an extended abstract can be downloaded at:
When your abstract is accepted, you should submit a full paper or a short paper (work-in-progress papers).
Full paper should contain 4-8 pages and short paper contains 2-4 pages.
All submissions will be handled electronically via the conference’s CMT website:
You can get more information at:
If you have any question, please contact us at: