Readings that are service systems related…

Reading that are service systems related…

1. Badinelli R (2016) Modeling service systems. Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“At once staggered by the challenges of modeling service systems, I was inspired by the opportunity they offered.  We are at an exciting stage of human history.  In academic, government, industry, and social circles, recent years have broadened and deepened the realization that service has gone beyond a ubiquitous presence in our lives to become the basis of all exchange and the processes of living healthy and rewarding lives.  In the coming decades, innovative people all over the world will advance the science and engineering of service systems to the level of sophistication and utility that the preceding 100 years of development in the fields of industrial engineering and operations research has brought to manufacturing and supply chains.” p. 3


2. Casanova HB (2016) Matching services to markets: The role of the human sensorium in shaping service-intensive markets.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Driven by the inescapable basics of our biology, and acknowledging the growing insights offered by sociobiology, this book builds on the basic insight that critical to understanding any market in question, is a deeper understanding of the underlying basics of exchanges… Exchanges are at the base, structured arenas wherein process flows of information, energy, material, upon regular repetition, engrain stable complexity, of ordered process, and architecture into an otherwise entropic domain.  They locally, and for the lifetime of the living systems modulating them, prevent the local flow of entropy from drainingg it out into an inert ground state.” p. 5


3. Chang CM (2014) Achieving service excellence: Maximizing enterprise performance through innovation and technology.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Service activities transform the state of an entity (e.g., person, businesses, community, and/or region/nation) or an entities possessions.  Historically, service activities depended upon direct interactions between a customer (beneficiary) and provider (expert)… Today, service providers package expertise and resources in complex service systems of people and technology, so that they can simultaneously increase productivity and quality of both direct and indirect interactions with more and more customers.  There are for-profit and nonprofit service systems.” p. 1


4. Enz CA, Kimes SE, Siguaw JA, Verma R, Walsh K, Withiam G (2016) Achieving success through innovation: Cases and insights from the hospitality, travel, and tourism industry.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“This book highlights 55 innovative ideas that have been implemented in the hospitality indutry and its related businesses. For our purposes, an innovation can be defined as a new service, product, process or idea.  As distinct from invention, innovation may mean reapplying or adapting existing ideas in a novel way, but it also may involve coming up with a totally new concept.”  p. 1


5. Kaisler SH, Armour F, Espinosa JA, Money WH (2016) Obtaining value from big data for service delivery. Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“The Internet, the World Wide Web, and the concept of service delivery have revolutionized the way commercial, academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations deals with their supplies and their clients and customers.   Individuals and organizations are overwhelmed with data produced by IT systems that are so pervasive throughout society, government, and business.” p. 1


6. McDavid D (2016) All services, all the time: How business services serve your business.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Business is all about shaping the resources of a generally chaotic world so as to bring forth interesting, useful, and valuable results.” p. 4


7. Reisman R (2016) FairPay: Adaptively win-win customer relationships.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“FairPay is a new logic for conducting ongoing business relationships that adaptively seek win-win value propositions in which price reflects value.” p. 3


8. Wirtz, J (2017) Winning in Services Markets: Success through People, Technology, and Strategy.  World Scientific Publishing Co .

“This book will show how service businesses can be managed to achieve cutomer satisfaction and profitability.  Below are key contents of the five parts of this book: Part I: Understanding Service Products, Consumers, and Markets; Part II: Applying the 4 P’s of Marketing to Services; Part III: Managing the Customer Interface; Part IV: Developing Customer Relationships;  Part V: Striving for Service Excellence. ” p. xiv – xvi.



Decision Making Methods Evolving and Generative Pattern Languages

How do we make better decisions – individually and collectively?  Are these methods evolving over time?

I was recently trying to recall a book I had read related to this topic – and my colleague David Ing helped me remember the book I was struggling to recall…

Mitroff II, Linstone HA (1995) The unbounded mind: Breaking the chains of traditional business thinking. Oxford University Press.


David also suggested a wealth of related readings, and we hope to discuss more the next time we have a meeting together….   A key  focus area for David Ing’s research these days is generative pattern languages…

David also wrote:

I’m onboard with your idea of service science + cognitive science for rapidly rebuilding evolution.

My approach for this would be to focus on generative pattern language — and I’m using “generative” in the sense that is compatible with your idea of “evolution”.  You might look at the October 30 theoretical work at , that supports the methodological work on the Dec. 2 lecture at .  There’s actually a lot of background work (particularly on architectural thinking) in the 200-page-plus dissertation I’m closing out.  This is all fresh research for me, so discussing in person ..; could be valuable …

I think that the book you’ve asked me to recall is Business Strategies for a Messy World:  Tools for Systemic Problem Solving, 2014, by Vince Barabba and Ian Mitroff, see .  The Toulmin Argumentation Schema aligns with the wicked problems and Issue-Based Information Systems (IBIS) from Horst Rittel.  The Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing (SAST) is Mitroff’s original extension of West Churchman’s The Design of Inquiring Systems.  …

In the systems thinking literature, I think that SAST is [too often] overlooked.  Ian Mitroff is a wealth of knowledge, and the author of 37 books.  …

If you’re going to be doing some reading, I have an alternative suggestion.  One of the major research contributions in my dissertation will be turning towards Tim Ingold, and his view on ecological anthropology.  He combines the mind and nature work of Gregory Bateson (which I think you like in Terrence Deacon) with ecological psychology of J.J. Gibson ([required for] a proper reading of affordances) with the social learning of Jean Lave (obviously popularized with Etienne Wenger).  Ingold is deep in philosophy, so much that I’ve been wending the distinctions he makes around Heidegger, Delueze, Latour and Jakob von Uexküll (who influenced Bateson … that’s the grandfather biologist at , not the grandson writer).

… Tim Ingold [was] keynote speaker at IFIP WG8.2 in Dublin.  See .  I got a greater appreciation for [his work and related work].  Steven Alter was at IFIP WG 8.2, too.  …

The two books from Tim Ingold that I’ve found most important are:

(1) Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description (2011) at

(2) The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill (2000) at

The two additional books that fill in some other ideas are:

(3) Lines: A Brief History (2007) at

(4) Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture at

[You can also] …watch him on Youtube and Vimeo.  If you search on Youtube and then change the filters to “upload date”, you’ll see an incredible number of recent lectures from a variety of venues.  I’ve just counted 13 uploads in the last 6 months.

With your interest in service systems and cognitive systems, one word that I would like to draw attention to from Tim Ingold is “alongside”.  This is dissolving the tacit-explicit distinctions of knowledge that are central in Nonaka’s knowledge cycle, coming from Polanyi.

[Also see] … Design of Inquiring Systems, complements to the book include:



I’ve now given you a lot to absorb.  Let me know if you find this direction interesting and productive.  Either way… we can have an opportunity to discuss.

In response to:

I am trying to re-focus these days on service science + cognitive science for rapidly rebuilding evolution…. less material, energy, time, space to create emergent structures… what is the speed limit of evolution? progress? type-thinking again….   think about a small robot machine that can easily rebuild itself, as well as create a population large enough so that they can collectively rebuild any machine and decision-making system know to our civilization…

HICSS presentation, and the paper it refers to is out there somewhere as well:

Our older paper:

The practical reason for this is to help students become better entrepreneurs – but the leap is so huge, I need to get some serious thinking time to make the connections more apparent…

Human-centered, smart service system NSF Workshop

Haluk Demirkan compiled this helpful list:

Reading and thinking….

“Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.”
Alfred North Whitehead, English mathematician

Recommended reading:

To better understand the socio-technical systems design loop read:
Kline, S. J. (1995). Conceptual foundations for multidisciplinary thinking. Stanford University Press. (doesn’t mention T-shaped skills, but very relevant to this concept as well)

To better understand the philosophical foundation of institutional facts read:
Searle JR. (1995). The construction of social reality. Simon and Schuster.

To better understand software social organisms read:
Forbus KD. (2016). Software Social Organisms: Implications for Measuring AI Progress. AI Magazine. Mar 1;37(1).

To better understand memory, including episodic memory read:
Schank RC. (1983). Dynamic memory: A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people. Cambridge University Press; Jan 1.

To better understand a bit, just a hint, about service science and cognitive science integration read:
Spohrer J, Banavar G. (2015). Cognition as a Service: An Industry Perspective. AI Magazine. Dec 1;36(4).

To better understand a bit more about service science read (you could also read the Handbook of Service Science, but this is a lot shorter):
Spohrer J, Maglio PP.(2008).  The emergence of service science: Toward systematic service innovations to accelerate co‐creation of value. Production and operations management. May 6;17(3):238-46.

To better understand “speed limits” to evolution and progress, read this:


If you read all of the above, we could have a really fun conversation about the better building blocks of the future.

The best way to predict the future is to inspire the next generation of students to build it better.

Currently trying to understand cognitive systems better based on my three foundations (1) my PhD from Yale is in Computer Science, specialized in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (1982-1989) – see: (scroll down to get to the Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science papers), (2) my four years doing machine learning for speech recognition and natural language understanding at the Verbex company (1978-1982) after I graduated MIT in Physics (1974-1978), and (3) my nearly ten years building intelligent tutoring systems and students models at University Rome in Italy (1989) and at Apple Computer (1989-1998).

IBM University Programs (the 6 R’s of IBM UP) include:
1. Research (
2. Readiness (
3. Recruiting ( or
4. Revenue ( and
5. Responsibility (, and
6. Regions (
Local “On Campus IBMers” (where available) help with the above…

IBM UP Priorities  include:
1. Smarter Cities & Service Innovation
2. Cloud & Analytics/DEEP QA, including High Performance Systems & Cybersecurity, Social Business
3. Growth Markets universities linked to Developed Markets universities to accelerate regional innovation
Doing more with less is the theme throughout business and societal systems, and to do this sustainably year over year…
Doing more with less decision-making & investment discipline: Run-Transform-Innovate or Iterate-Imitate-Innovate (I-cubed)
I-cubed investment discipline steadily automates “Iterate” (5%/yr cost cut) lowering costs, to invest more in “Imitate & Innovate”
I-cubed is Moore’s Law equivalent for business & societal systems (smarter service systems improve as IT capabilities grow)
I-cubed supports escaping the pull of the past and escaping the commodity trap

View of University Priorities  include:
1. Knowledge transfer (teaching) – student tuition & government loans
2. Knowledge creation (research) – government grants & corporate partners
3. Knowledge application (entrepreneurship) – local incentives & alumni donations
4. Knowledge integration (bridge silos) – lowers costs without compromising depth
University business model is evolving (to fund the above, and continuously renew physical infrastructure)…
Some universities, governments, and businesses are adopting I-cubed investment discipline to do more with less year over year.
I-cubed investment discipline can be applied to education as a service system for continuous improvement


While I really like this quote, one possible implication is consciousness goes to zero.  Perhaps there are other possibilities too.  For example, read this:  De Chardin T. Pierre. (1959). The phenomenon of man. Trans. Bernard Wall. New York: Harper & Row.


Understanding Cognitive Systems

My mission is “understanding cognitive systems” – what does that mean?  People, dogs, cats, crows, and even bees and ants are cognitive systems with social intelligence, and someday so will our smart phones, our homes, our offices, our cars, and yes, even our clothes will be cognitive systems with social intelligence.  Hard to believe in 2016, but I bet it is coming. Socio-technical hint: Someday everything will have some form of blockchain episodic memory about its interactions for legal reasons.  Even businesses and governments will become cognitive businesses and cognitive governments, cognitive system entities with episodic memories and social intelligence.

I am trying to understand how people build, understand, and work with cognitive systems.  Digital cognitive systems are progressing from tool to assistant to collaborator to coach to mediator.  This is an evolutionary progression – a progression of both technology (capability) and trust (responsibility).   Do you trust your smart phone?  To me this is a hard research problem – trying to understand socio-technical system design and evolution. This type of research is a kind of transdisciplinary integration of service science and cognitive science.  It requires thinking a lot about people-centered systems redesign.  That is the kind of research I enjoy doing the most.  Caution: Powerful things can be misused – guns, planes, trucks, computers, and words.  People-centered systems redesign has to take this into account: as the building blocks get better, so must the wisdom and responsibility of the people using them.  That is the really hard part.  If you are interested in this type of research too – I recommend reading these books and articles – and then we can have a good conversation:

Curating open source AI and data sets, especially for smartphones

Curating pointers to open source AI/Intelligent Tutoring Systems software and data sets, especially interested smartphone implementations.


Abbeel_P (Berkeley):
Pointers: Berkeley, CMU, Stanford faculty.  MOOC organizations.
Great video:


AI Resources:
Pointers: ?


Aleven V (CMU):
Co-Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Pointers: Some incorporated herein
plans for open sourcing CTAT/Tutorshop but are not very far along
Carolyn Rosé has open source tools for building conversational agents




Brunskill E (CMU,Stanford):
Pointers: ?




Pointers: ?




Currimbhoy Z (Evernote AI):


DataShop, Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center (LearnLab):
Pointers: ?


Fox A (Berkeley):
Pointers: Berkeley faculty.





Ground (Berkeley):



Griffiths T (Berkeley):
Pointers: ?


Hearst M (Berkeley):
Pointers: ?


Huang G (Peking U):
Pointers: Discovered.
Yan Cloud, deep learning on GitHub


Pointers: ?


IEDMS (International Educational Data Mining Society):




Kahn S (Kahn Academy):
Pointers: ?


Pointers: ?

Lindstedt JK (RPI):
Pointers: ?

Miller S (IBM): Data Sciences
Pointer: Ground at Berkeley

Minton S (InferLink):
Pointers: AI Resources


Mobile Gap:
Pointers: Lots of open source games for smartphones


Pointers: ?


Pointers: ?



Pointers: ?




Pardos Z (Berkeley):

Pointers: Incorporated herein.

Deep learning for learning representations of mooc resources:


Rafferty, A:

Pointers ?


Soloway E (UMichigan):

Pointers: Incorporated herein, teaching kids to build smartphone apps


Stamper J (CMU):

Pointers: Discovered TutorGen, DataShop, IEDMS



Pointers: ?



Pointers: ?



Pointers: ?


Zicari R:

Pointers: Discovered.




Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less. – Marie Curie


Learning to learn is a skill, based primarily on navigating moods, from learning blocking moods to learning supporting moods.  – Denning and Flores


Toward Open Source AI for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Chatbot App for Smartphones – with dynamic, episodic memory system

TODO Reading



Collins C, Pearl M (2016) Born on Third Base: A One Percenter Makes the Case for Tackling Inequality, Bringing Wealth Home, and Committing to the Common Good. Chelsea Green Publishing

[NPR recommended]



Garten J (2016) From Silk to Silicon: The Story of Globalization Through Tem Extraordinary Lives. Amberley Publishing Limited.

[NPR recommended]



Grant AM, Sandberg S (2016) Originals: how non-conformists move the world. Viking.

[Jeff Saperstein recommended]



Lei T, Barzilay R, Jaakkola T (2016) Rationalizing neural predictions. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.04155.Jun 13.

[Dharmendra Modha recommended]



Mohr BJ, Van Amelsvoort P (Eds.) (2015) Co-creating Humane and Innovative Organizations: Evolutions in the Practice of Socio-Technical System Design.  Global STS-D Network Press.

[JCS Found – read part, and gave away – reorder]

Annotated Bibliography: Holiday Reading and Re-Reading


Certain books and papers, I enjoy reading and re-reading as many times as I can, learning something new each time as I change my mental models over time.

In the annotated bibliography below, I have selected some of the special reading that I hope you will enjoy too…

1. Auerswald P. The coming prosperity: How entrepreneurs are transforming the global economy. Oxford University Press; 2011 Dec 15.

[extends the notion of recipes in several interesting ways, including viewing entrepreneurs as people who bring new innovations to the world by seeking out new combinations and configurations of resources.]

2. Baros O (2017) Business Engineering and Service Design. Business Expert Press.

“Ever since the idea of Service Science was proposed, seveal lines of work in what is now called Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) have been put forward.” p. 1

“… we want to assure that service design is explicitly aligned with strategy and business model; to accomplish this, we propose the method of business engineering in performing such design.” p. 1

3. Bitner MJ, Ostrom AL, Burkhard KA (2012) Service blueprinting: Transforming the student experience. EDUCAUSE Review 47(6):38-51.

“There is much discussion today about the need to transform higher education for the benefit of students, employers, and society at large.  Experts and researchers list the numerous challenges: low student retention rates and graduation rates, the increasing cost of higher education, and concerns that graduates don’t possess the skills required to compete successfully in today’s interconnected, global marketplace. For example… ” p. 38

“Viewing higher education as a service, or a service system, means that transformative initiatives will benefit from being viewed through a service lens.” p. 40

“One specific technique is service blueprinting, which facilitates collaboration among key contributors and stakeholders across a broad customer experience to create a visual depiction, or blueprint, of a service.” p. 42

4. Bogost I (2016) Play Anything: The Pleasure of Limits, the Uses of Boredom, & the Secret of Games. Basic Books.

“Preface: Life is not a game… ‘Life is a game.’ I am sure you have heard this adage… Like most aphorisms, it mostly feigns insight.  ‘Life is a game,’ and so… what, exactly? It ends, eventually? It pits you in a challenge against others? Or it puts you in collaboration with them? Or even that you, a proverbial player, can manipulate people and things as if they are pawns in a game? Maybe it means life is fun like a game – unless it is not, of course, in which case maybe life is like a bad game.” p. ix

“This book offers a perspective on how to live in a world far bigger than our bodies, minds, hopes, and dreams, and how to do it with pleasure and gratitude.  I approach this topic through the lenses of game design and philosophy – and psychology, anthropology, science, art, design, entertainment, computing, and literature.  The lesson that games teach us is simple.  Games aren’t appealing because they are fun, but because they are limited.” p. x

“Play cultivates humility, for it requires us to treat things as they are rather than as we wish them to be.  If we let it, play can be the secret to contentment.  Not because it provides happiness or pleasure – although it certainly can – but because it helps us pursue a greater respect for the things, people, and situations around us.” p. xii

“Children aren’t only less inhibited than adults; they are also less powerful, and smaller too… And so children are constantly compromising, constantly adjusting to an environment that is clearly not theirs, not yet.  That’s wisdom, not innocence.  If only we could harness that wisdom and make use of it.” p. 3

“Children are right to allow the humility of their smallness to rule the day.  My daughter showed us the key: misery gives way to fun when you take an object, event, situation, or scenario that wasn’t designed for you, that sn’t invested in you, that isn’t concerned in the slightest for your experience of it, and then treat it as if it were.” p. 3

5. Brock, JA (2004) Rules for leadership, life, and career.  Tulsa, OK.

“All great leaders have four common characteristics: (1) Bedrock principles, (2) A moral companss, (3) Vision, and (4) The ability to form a consensus.  There have been great leaders both good (Churchill, Joan of Arc) and evil (Hitler, Stalin).  The evil ones rule by fear and coercion.  The good ones rule by inspiring confidence and trust… A thousand books have been written on leadership.  Leadership is complex.  Simply put, a good leader knows what to do, and does it.” p. 1

“The four strategic virtues required to be a successful leader: (1) Courage, (2) Justice, (3) Moderation, and (4) Wisdom.” p. 2


6. Clark A (2014) Mindware: An introduction to the philosophy of cognitive science. Oxford University Press.

“… a genuine understanding of the complex interactive webs that unite brains, bodies, people, and their sociotechnological worlds.” p. vii

“‘The study of logic and computers has revealed to us that intelligence resides in physical sumbol systems.  This is computer science’s most basic law of qualitative structure (Newell and Simon, 1976, p. 125).” p. 30


7. Clark A (2008/2011) Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. Oxford University Press.

“Feynman’s suggestion is, at the very least, that the loop into the external medium was intregral to his intellectual activity (the ‘working’) itself.  But I would go further and suggest that Feynman was actually thinking on the paper.  The loop through the pen and paper is part of the physical machinery responsible for the shape of the flow of thoughts and ideas…” p. xxv

“Such body- and world-involving cycles are bet understood, or so I shall argue, as quite literally extending the machinery of mind out into the world – as building extended cognitive circuits that are themselves the minimal material bases for important aspects of human thought and reason.  Such cycles supersize the mind.” p. xxvi

“Honda’s Asimo (see fig. 1.1) is billed, perhaps rightly, as the world’s most advanced humanoid robot… As a walking robot, however, Asimo is far from energy efficient.  For a walking agent, one way to measure energy efficiency is by the so-called specific cost of transport (Tucker 1975) – namely ‘the amount of energy required to carry a unit weight a unit distance.’ … Asimo… cost of transport of about 3.2, whereas humans… about 0.2.  What accounts for this massive difference in energetic expenditure? Whereas robots like Asimo walk by means of very precise, and energy-intensive, joint-angle control systems, biological walking agents make maximal use of mass properties and biomechamical couplings…” p. 3

“3 Material Symbols: 3.1 Language as Scaffolding: Where does language fit into our emerging picture of the plastic, environmentally exploitative, ecologically efficient agent?  One useful way to approach this question is to consider language itself as a form of mind-transforming, cognitive scaffolding…” p. 44

8. Dartnell L (2015) The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Civilization in the Aftermath of a Cataclysm. Penguin.

“People living in developed nations have become disconnected from the everyday processes of civilization that support them… What’s more, each piece of modern technology we take for granted requires an enormous support network of other technologies.” p. 3

“Even quotidian artifacts of our civilization that aren’t particularly high-tech still require a diversity of materials that must be mined or otherwise gathered, processed in specialized factories, and assembled in manufacturing facilities.” p. 4

“A Reboot Manual: The most profound problem facing survivors is that human knowledge is collective, distributed across the population.  No one individual knows enough to keep the vital process of society going.” p. 5

“The solution can be found in a remark made by physicist Richard Feynman.  In hypothesizing about the potential destruction of all scientific knowledge and what might be done about it, he allowed himself a single statement, to be transmitted securely to whichever intelligent creatures emerged after the cataclysm: What sentence holds the most information in the fewest words?  ‘I believe,’ said Feynman, ‘it is the atomic hypothesis … that all things are made of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart but repelling upon being squeezed into one another.'” p. 9

“Inspired by Feynman, I’d argue that the best way to help survivors of the Fall is not to create a comprehensive record of all knowledge, but to provide a guide to the basics, adapted to their likely circumstances, as well as blueprint of the techniques to rediscover crucial understanding for themselves – the powerful knowledge-generation machinery that is the scientific method.  The key to preserving civilization is to provide a condensed seed that will readily unpack to yield the entire expansive tree of knowledge, rather than attempting to document the colossal tree itself.” p. 10

“During the reboot, there’s no reason to retrace the original route to science and technological sophistication.  Our path through history has been long and tortuous…  But with 20/20 hindsight, knowing what we know now, could we give directions straight to crucial advances, taking shortcuts like an experienced navigator? How might we chart an optimal route through the vastly interlinked network of scientific principles and enabling technology to accelerate progress as much as possible?” p. 11

9. Deacon TW (1998) The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. WW Norton & Company.

“As our species designation – sapiens – suggests, the defining attribute of human beings is an unparalleled cognitive ability.” p. 21


10. Denning PJ, Flores G (2016) The Profession of IT: Learning to learn: Do you get stuck when it is time to learn something new? Read this. Communications of the ACM. Dec 1;59(12):32-36.

[See related, but quite different here:]

“Learning to learn is a navigational skill of recognizing moods that block learning and shifting to moods that enhance learning.” p. 32

“Table 2: Moods that support learning: Ambition, Confidence, Perplexity, bafflement, Resolution, Serenity, acceptance, Trust, Wonder” p. 35

“Table 3: Moods that block learning: Apathy, Arrogance, Boredom, Confusion, Distrust, skepticism, Fear, anxiety, Frustration, Impatience, Insecurity, Overwhelm, Resignation” p. 35

“Shifting moods requires reflection and practice because you may have to unlearn some habits that you formed for coping with different situations.” p. 36


11. Domingos P (2015) The master algorithm: How the quest for the ultimate learning machine will remake our world. Basic Books.

[C-level execs must read this if they want to understand machine learning deeply.   From a service science perspective, this also explains why Data > Software. These are part of: Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware =  TEDSH inequality.]

12. Ericsson KA (2009) Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments. Cambridge University Press.

“Developments in technology and software engineering are making many types of traditional jobs, such as bookkeeping, accounting, routine design, and document indexing, virtually obsolote.” p. 1

13. Fagin R, Halpern JY, Moses Y, Vardi M (2004) Reasoning about knowledge. MIT press.

“Epistemology, the study of knowledge, has a long and honorable tradition in philosophy, starting with the early Greek philosophers.” p. 1

“A number of states of knowledge arise naturally in a multi-agent situation that do not arise in the one-agent case.” p. 2

“Common knowledge also arises in discourse understanding… …common knowledge also turns out to be a prerequisite for achieving agreement… At the other end of the spectrum from common knowledge is distributed knowledge… common knowledge and distributed knowledge are useful tools in helping us understand and analyze complicated situations involve groups of agents.” p. 3


14. Furseth, PI, Cuthbertson, R (2016) Service Innovation Triangle: The building blocks of innovation.  Norwegian School of Business and Oxford Institute of Retail Management, Said School of Business.

“Service Innovation Triangle (SIT): Customers, Owners, Suppliers; Value, Service System, Business Model, Customer Experience,Tangible Assets, Technology, Financial Assets, People, Intangible Assets;  SIT Methodology – Innovation can start anywhere: 3 actors, 3 layers, 9 elements.   SIT Checklist: 1. Decide where to focus, 2. Consider impact on other elements.” p. i-ii

15. Gelernter D (1993) Mirror worlds: Or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox… How it will happen and what it will mean. Oxford University Press.

[this explains why Software > Hardware; and really XaaS – Everything as a Service – everything as an information/data service.   These are part of: Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware =  TEDSH inequality.]

“The Mirror World isn’t a mere information service. It’ a place.” p. 22

16. Gery GJ (1991) Electronic performance support systems: How and why to remake the workplace through the strategic application of technology. Weingarten Publications, Inc.

“The emergence of a new discipline such as electronic performance support often starts when a few people are frustrated with the mismatch between thier needs and traditional approaches to filling them.  Conversation heat up.”  p. i

“Organizations substantially increase the effectiveness of human endeavor.” p. 2

“The goal of an electronic performance support system is to provide whatever is necessary to generate performance and learning at the moment of need.” p. 34

17. Goldberg DE, Somerville M (2014) A whole new engineer. Three Joy Associates Inc.

[Many of the themes of T-shaped professionals come out in this book]

18. Goldratt EM, Schragenheim E, Ptak CA (200) Necessary but not sufficient: A theory of constraints business novel. Norths Rivers Press.

[In the form of a novel about a business finding and improving its weakest links, one after the other – multiple stakeholder perspectives, and conversations.]

19. Goodsell DS (2009) The machinery of life. Springer Science & Business Media.

“Cells are about 1000 times smaller in length than objects in our everyday world… another 100 times reduction takes us to the world of molecules” p. 3

“At room temperature, a medium-sized protein travels at a rate of about 5 m/s (the speed of a fast runner).  If placed alone in space, this protein would travel its own length in about a nanosecond ( a billionth of a second). ” p. 5

“Cells do almost all their work with six types of atoms – carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosperous, and hydrogen – addig more exotic atoms only when needed for special tasks. These atoms may be connected in only very limited ways, defined by the underlying chemistry of the atom.  Molecular machines must be constructed within these significant limitations.” p. 10

20. Gorbis M (2013) The nature of the future: Dispatches from the socialstructed world. Simon and Schuster.

“Today, all around the world, we are seeing a new kind of network or relationship-driven economy emerging, with individuals joining forces sometimes to fill the gaps left by existing institutions – corporate, governments, educational establishments – and sometimes creating new products, services, and knowledge that no institution is able to provide.  Empowered by computing and communications technologies that have been steadily building village-like networks on a global scale, we are infusing more and more of our economic transactions with social connectedness.  The new technologies are inherently social and personal.  They help us create communities around interests, identities, and common personal challenges.  They allow us to gain direct access to a worldwide community of others…  We are moving away from the dominance of the depersonalized world of institutional production and creating a new economy around social connections and social rewards – a process I call socialstructing.” p. 3

“Socialstructing is in fact enabling not only a new kind of global economy but a new kind of society, in which amplified indivuals – individuals empowered with technologies and the collective intelligence of others in their social network – can take on many functions previously only large organizations could perform, often more efficiently, at lower costs or no cost at all, and with greater ease.” p. 4


21. Gustaffson A , Kristensson P, Schirr GR, Witell L (2016) Service Innovation.  Business Expert Press.

“Even by out-of-date traditional measure, over 70 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the European Union (EU) and Sweden and over 80 percent of the GDP of the United States is service.  Yet, most of the models and theories of service innovation are based on new product development for goods.” p. i

22. Hatch M (2013) The maker movement manifesto: rules for innovation in the new world of crafters, hackers, and tinkerers. McGraw Hill Professional.

“Manifesto: Make, Share, Give, Learn, Tool Up, Play, Participate, Support, Change” p. 1-2

“But because the maker revolution is physical, it is destined to be bigger.” P. 3

“A 98 percent reduction in the cost of launching a product or company means, for example, that what used to cost $100,000 now costs just $2,000.” P. 7

“Tools are getting easier to use, they are more powerful, and they are cheaper to acquire than at any other time in history.  Materials are becoming more accessible, more sophisticated, and more fun to work on and with.” P. 23

“The key thing here is that the costs of resources for a start-up are falling” p. 43

“The largest untapped resource on the planet is the spare time, creativity, and disposable income of the ‘creative class.’” P. 52

23. Hayek – “Individualism and Economic Order”

This is an important key for me – related to rights and responsibilities of individuals….

However that may be, the main point about which there can be little doubt is that Smith’s chief concern was not so much with what man might occasionally achieve when he was at his best but that he should have as little opportunity as possible to do harm when he was at his worst. It would scarcely be too much to claim that the main merit of the individualism which he and his contemporaries advocated is that it is a system under which bad men can do least harm.

This is the constitutional limitation of man’s knowledge and interests, the fact that he cannot know more than a tiny part of the whole of society and that therefore all that can enter into his motives are the immediate effects which his actions will have in the sphere he knows. All the possible differences in men’s moral attitudes amount to little, so far as their significance for social organization is concerned, compared with the fact that all man’s mind can effectively comprehend are the facts of the narrow circle of which he is the center; that, whether he is completely selfish or the most perfect altruist, the human needs for which he can effectively care are an almost negligible fraction of the needs, of all members of society.

This is what social media and digital cognitive systems may change….  leaders of large corporations and nations already approach this new state of affairs…

[Seee also Galambos:

Sic Itur Ad Astra: The Theory of Volition (Volume 1)

A course in Volitional Science (Andrew Joseph Galambos)]


24. Hurwitz J, Bloor R, Kaufman M, Halper F (2009) Service management for dummies. Compliments of IBM: IBM Limited Edition. Wiley.

“Cover: Learn to: transform your capabilities and resources into business value, manager your business assets as a service, respond more quickly to new opportunities.”

“We think that service management is becoming increasingly important in a service-driven economy… We think it is important to focus on the intersection of business strategy, IT strategy, planning, and operations.” p. 1

“A service can be something as simple as preparing and delivering a meal to a table in a restaurant or as complex as managing the components of a data center or operations of a factory.  We’re entering an era where everything is a service.” p. 3

“When your thinking about service management (monitoring and optimizing a service to ensure that it meets the critical outcomes the customer values and stakeholders want to provide), many dimensions and aspects might not be apparent from the outset.” p. 4

“The world of service management has two sides: the customer experience and the set of behind-the-scenes services that support the customer.” p. 7


25. IfM and IBM (2008). Succeeding through service innovation: A service perspective for education, research, business, and government.  A white paper based on Cambridge Service Science, Management and Engineering Symposium (July 2007), the consultation process (October – December 2007). University of Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing, Cambridge, UK.

“Executive Summary: For education: Enable graduates from various disciplines to become T-shaped professionals or adaptive innovators; promote SSME education programmes and qualifications; develop a modular template-based SSME curriculum in higher education and extend to other levels of education; explore new teaching methods for SSME education.” p. 1

“1.2 New skills and knowledge required: The rising demand for service innovation has huge implications for skills and the knowledge base that underpins them. People are needed who can understand and marshal diverse, and increasingly global, resources to create value. Quite often, these resources are accessed using advanced ICT and new globe-spanning business models. The people with such skills are known as adaptive innovators – those who identify and realise a continuous stream of innovation in service systems.” p. 4

“Service systems are dynamic configurations of people, technologies, organisations and shared information that create and deliver value to customers, providers and other stakeholders.” p. 1

“Succeeding through service innovation: A framework for progress.  1. Emerging Demand, 2. Define the domain, 3. Foundations and gaps, 4. Bridge the gaps, 5. Recommendation” p. 2 (Figure)

26. Johnson L, Adams-Becker S, Cummins M, Estrada V,  Freeman A, Hall C (2016) NMC Horizon Report: 2016 Higher Education Edition. Austin, TX. The New Media Consortium.

“What is on the five year horizon for higher education institutions? … The experts agreed on two long-term impact trends: advancing cultures of innovation, as well as fundamentally rethinking how universities and colleges work.” p. 1

“Long-term impact trends: advancing culture of innovation, rethinking how higher education works” p. 8-11

“Mid-term impact trends: Redesigning learning spaces, shift to deeper learning approaches” p. 12-15

“Short-term impact trends: Growing focus on measuring learning, increasing use of blended learning designs.” p. 16-19

“Solvable challenges: Blending formal and informal learning, improving digital literacy” p. 20-25

“Difficult challenges: Competing models of educaiton, personalized learning” p. 26-29

“Wicked challenges: Balancing our connected and unconnected lives, keeping education relevant” p. 30-33

“One year or less: Bring your own devices (BYOD), learning analytics and adaptive learning” p. 34-39

“Two to three years: Augmented reality and virtual reality” p. 40-43

“Four to five year: Affective learning, robotics” p. 44-49

27. Iwano K, Motegi T (2015) Wisdom Computing: Toward creative collaboration between humans and machines. Journal of Information Processing and Management. 58(7):515-524 (岩野和生, 茂木強. 知のコンピューティング: 人間と機械の共創する社会を目指して. 情報管理.)
article in Japanese:
video in Japanese:

[Quotes below from English translation provided by the first author – Center for Research and Development Strategy (CRDS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)]

“With ever-increasing progress of science and technology, we, humans, have been drawn in the sea of abundant knowledge and information.  It is indeed unclear that we have become wiser than ever…  The more complicated the world becomes, the poorer the quality of our decisions becomes… Wisdom computing refers to activities aiming at promoting the creation of wisdom utilizing information technology (IT) and accelerating the scientific discoveries and their social implicaiton.” p. 1

“Wisdom computing and ELSI/SSH issue map… Ethical Legal Social Innovation/Social Sciences Humanities” p. 9


28. Lissack M, Roos J. The next common sense: Mastering corporate complexity through coherence. Nicholas Brealey International; 1999.

“The Next Common Sense recognizes that the “e” in e-manager describes the environment, not the task…” p. III

“The old common sense was about dealing with the discrete element of a complicated world.  The next common sense is about mastering the complex swirl of events and situations around us through coherence.” p. 1

“Today’s management is all about interactions rather than entities, about the effects of relationships between people inside and outside the organization rather than about controlling entities like distinct groups of employees… ” p. 3

29. Lowney C (2010) Heroic leadership: Best practices from a 450-year-old company that changed the world. Loyola Press; 2010.

“Moreover, the Jesuits were launched into an environment that, though four centuries removed, had telling analogies to our own.  New worlds were opening as voyages of discovery established permanent European links to the Americas and Asia.  Media technology was evolving: Gutenberg’s printing press had transformed books from luxury goods into more widely accessible media.  Traditional approaches and belief systems were questioned or discarded as Protestant reformers mounted the first widespread and permanent ‘competition’ to the Roman Catholic Church.” p. 4

“Why the Jesuits?  Founded in 1540 by ten men with no capital and no business plan, the Jesuits built, within little more than a generation, the world’s most influential company of its kind. As confidants to European monarchs, China’s Ming emperor, the Japanese shogun, and the Mughal emperor in India, they boasted a Rolodex unmatched by that of any commercial, religious, or government entity… By the late eighteenth century, seven hundred secondary schools and colleges sprawled across five continents.  By one estimate, Jesuits were education nearly 20 percent of all Europeans pursuing a classical higher education.” p. 7

Four pillars of success… self-awareness, ingenuity, love, heroism… In other words, Jesuits equipped their recruits to succeed by molding them into leaders who… understood their strengths, weaknesses, values, and worldview; confidently innovated and adapted to embrace a changing world; engaged others with a positive, loving attitude; and energized themselves and others through heroic ambition.  Moreover, Jesuits trained every recruit to lead, convinced that all leadership begins with self-leadership.” p. 9


30. March JG (1991) Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization science. Feb;2(1):71-87.

“This paper considers the relationship between the exploration of new possibilities and the exploitation of old certainties in organizational learning.  It examines some complications in allocating resources between the two, particularly those introduced by the distribution of costs and benefits across time and space, and the effects of ecological interactions.” p. 71

31. Markova D, McArthur A (2015) Collaborative Intelligence: Thinking with People who Think Differently. Spiegel & Grau.

“The most significant gift our species brings to the world is our capacity to think.  The most significant danger our species beings to the world is our inability to think with those who think differently.”  p. 6

“Your collaborative-intelligence quotient, which we will refer to as ‘CQ’ throughout this book, is a measure of your ability to think with others on behalf of what matters to us all.” p. 8

32. McKenna CD (2006) The world’s newest profession: Management consulting in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press.

“Series Editor’s Preface: In the past century, the United States has made many important contributions to the global economy – in technology, in business practices, and in organizational structures. Few of these innovations, we believe, have been more significant than the subject of Christopher McKenna’s book on the rise of management consulting in the twentieth century.” p. xiii

“In Lemann’s view, the best students were drawn to jobs in the elite consulting firms because these firms offered students, ‘that odd upper meritocratic combination of love of competition, herd mentality, and aversion to risk.’ … In other words, for those students who couldn’t yet decide what to do with their lives, but did not want to appear directionless, management consulting promised the credentialed path to future glory.” p. 3

“It was no coincidence that Marvin Bower of McKinsey & Company described management consulting as ‘on of the newer professions’ when he addressed the MBAs at Harvard in 1962. In particular, Bower was a leading advocate of the ongoing professioanlization of management consulting and professional status was a constant topic of concern as consultants gain economic and cultural status.” p. 5

“One: Economies of Knowledge: A Theory of Management Consulting: In 1930, Business Week introduced its readers to a new professional service: management consulting.  As the writers at Business Week explained, the existing system of business professionals had become so complicated that, according to James McKinsey at the University of Chicago, a new type of professional was ‘increasing in numbers and influence… the advisor that tells business what other advisors to use and when.;” p. 8


33. Michaelian K (2016) Mental time travel: episodic memory and our knowledge of the personal past. MIT Press.

[Related: Suddendorf T, Corballis MC (1997) Mental time travel and the evolution of the human mind. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs. 123(2):133-67.]

“1 Three Questions about Memory: The argument of this book is driven by three core questions: What is memory? How does memory give us knowledge? When and why did memory emerge? 1.1 What is Memory?  The attempt to say what memory is amounts, in the first place, to an attempt to give an informative general characterization of remembering – of what it is for someone to remember something.” p. 3

“Part I sets the stage for the rest of the book. Relying on research on the memory systems of the human brain… The simulation theory of memory is developed and defended in part II.” p. 13

“Part III takes up the question of the reliability of simulational remembering…. Part IV turns to the evolution of episodic memory.” p. 14

34. Mohr BJ, Amelsvoort PV (2016) Co-creating humane and innovative organization:  Evolutions in the practice of socio-technical system design.  Global STS-D Network Press.

“The combination of massive economic upheavals, breathtaking advances in technology, widespread political turmoil, unprecedented climate change, radically shifting demographics, and breakthroughs in social relations has left organizations with a full plate of adaptation challenges.  The combined demands on productivity, quality, flexibility, innovation, sustainability, and healthy work is driving a revitalized search for innovations that include but go beyond faster and smaller technology.  The approach of socio-technical systems design has rich history in creating alternatives so the classical Tayloristic organization in which employees are disengaged, decisions are painfully slow, and silos are powerful dividers.” p. xv

35. Moss D (2007) A concise guide to macroeconomics. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

[related and very good is Ray Dalio’s video: How the economic machine works (in 30 minutes) – ]

[to get a peak into the macroeconomic future – Kartik Garda’s thinking on technology deflation is fascinating – ]

“Introduction: Macroeconomic forces affect all of us in our daily lives.  Inflation rates influence prices we pay for goods and services and, in turn, the value of our incomes and our savings.  Interest rates determine the cost of borrowing and the yield on bank accounts and bonds, while exchange rates affect our command over foreign products as well as the value of our foreign assets.  And all of this represents just the tip of the iceberg.  Numerous maco variables – ranging from unemployment to productivity – are equally important in shaping the economic environment in which we live.” p. 1


36. Nakamaki H, Hioki K, Mitsui I, Takeuchi Y, editors (2015) Enterprise as an Instrument of Civilization: An Anthropological Approach to Business Administration. In Translational System Sciences vol 4, Editors in Chief: Kijima K, Deguchi H; Editorial Board: Takahashi S, Kita H, Kaneda T, Tokuyasu A, Hioki K, Aruka Y, Bausch K, Spohrer, J, Hofkirchner, W, Pourdehnad J, Jackson MC.  Springer.

“Chapter 1: Enterprise as an instrument of civilization: Abstract: Instrumental aspects of enterprises are discussed in this chapter, based on Tadao Umaesao’s definition of civilization, namely, ‘human device/institution systems.'” p. 3


37. Nordfors, D, Cerf V, Senges E (2016) Disrupting unemployment:  Reflection on sustainable, middle class economic recovery. I4J Foundation. Ewing Kauffman Foundation.

“Aspects of the vision: How can innovation disrupt unemployment and create meaningful work for everyone? How can we create a strong middle class innovation economy?” p 1

38. Norman DA (1993)Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Basic Books.

[this book explains augmented intelligence very well – perhaps the best I have seen from a cognitive science and design perspectives]

“The good news is that technology can make us smart… The bad news is technology can also make us stupid.” p. 3


39. NSF (2006) Simulation-Based Engineering Science: Revolutionizing Engineering Science Through Simulation. Report of the National Science Foundation Blue Ribbon Panel on Simulation-Based Engineering Science. National Science Founation, Arlington, VA. May.

[Closely related report:
Glotzer SC, Kim S, Cummings PT, Deshmukh A, Head-Gordon M, Karniadakis G, Petzold L, Sagui C, Shinozuka M (2009) International Assessment of Research and Development in Simulation-Based Engineering and Science. Panel Report. WORLD TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION CENTER INC BALTIMORE MD]

“Simulation refers to the application of computational models to the study and prediction of physical events or the behavior of engineered systems… Simultion-based Engineering Science (SBES) is defined as the discipline that provides the scientific and mathematical basis for the simulation of engineered systems.  Such systems ranges from microelectronic devices to automobiles, aircraft, adn even the infrastructure of oilfields and cities.” p. 1


40. Parker GG, Van Alstyne MW, Choudary SP. Platform revolution. WW New York, NY: Norton & Company. 2016.

“Platform Revolution is our attempt to provide the first clear, complete, and authoritative guide to one of the most important economic and social developments of out time – the rise of the platform as a business and organizational model.” p. ix


41. Peavy RV (1997) SocioDynamic Counselling: A Constructivist Perspective.  “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.” Trafford.

“The pioneering work of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bakhtin, Leontiev, Kelly, Bruner, and Gergen provides a contemporary constructivist perspective for psychology.  Recently the work of Michael Mahoney, Vittorio Guidano and Greg Neimeiyer and many therapist-writers associated with systems and family therapies have opened up psychotherapy and counselling to constructivist contributions.” p. 9

“This is a book about the transformation of counselling into a practice which is more relevant for individuals who are in the midst of navigating seas of change.” p. 18

“Counselling provides a person the opportunity to examine the implications of her life as she is living it and thereby give consideration to alternative paths as she might live it in the future.” p. 19

“In order to exist in the social world with a confortable sense of being a good, socially proper, and stable person, an individual needs to have a coherent, acceptable and constantly revised life story. Linde.” p. 28

“As counsellors we have the privilege of hearing many stories and scripts and then joining the storytellers in the task of re-authoring them toward more preferred futures.” p. 30

“We are beginning to have a more holistic or ecological frame for understanding ourselves, others, and the world.” p. 34

“The individual is not the sole producer of her life, but produces it in joint action with others and in relations with the physical environment.” p. 37

“Table of constructivist principles for counsellors: 1.  A constructivist counsellor assumes that there are multiple realities, rather than one true, objective reality. … 7. Constructivist counselling is a culture-centered activity. Cultures are designs for living. ” p. 39-43

“Modern institutions differ from all preceding forms of social order in respect to their dynamism, the degree to which they undercut traditional habits and customs, and their global impact… these.. transformations radically alter the nature of day-to-day social life and affect the most personal aspects of our experience. Anthony Giddens, 1991.” p. 49

“Is the technicizing of vocational guidance through the adoption of various forms of ‘computerized’ guidance just another way to lure genuine counselling into the maw of the microchip machine? Is vocational counselling something more than rapid abundant access to ‘information’?  What about moral reasoning and existential pondering of one’s fate and choices?” p. 60

42. Phillips R, Pittman R (2014) An introduction to community development. Routledge.

“Community development has evolved over the past few decades into a recognized discipline of interest to both practitioner and academics.  However, community development is defined in many different ways.  Most practitioners think of community development as an outcome – physical, social, and economic improvement in a community – while most academics think of community development as a process – the ability of communities to act collectively and enhancing the ability to do so.” p 3

43. Pine BJ, Gilmore JH (1999) The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage. Harvard Business Press.

[this explains why Experience > Data, and if your read the last chapter why Transformation > Experience. These are part of: Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware =  TEDSH inequality.]

44. Rayes A, Salam S (2016) Internet of Things–From Hype to Reality: The Road to Digitization. Springer

“Foreword I: In California, just a few months after two people stepped foot on the moon for the first time, two computers began sending messages to each other using protocols designed to make it easy for computers to connect and join the party…   Jim Spohrer, IBM” p. vii

“Technology is becoming embedded in nearly everything in our lives.  Just look around you and you will see how the Internet has completely effected many aspects of our existence.” p. xiii

“The term ‘Internet of Things’ was first coined by Kevin Ashton in a presentation he made at Proctor and Gamble in 1999.” p. 1

“Putting it all together, IoT is the network of things, with clear element identification, emedded with software intelligence, sensors, and ubiquitous connectivity to the Internet.” p. 2

45. Ricketts JA (2007) Reaching the goal: How managers improve a services business using Goldratt’s theory of constraints. Pearson Education.

“Part II: Applications: Chapter 4: Resource Management; Chapter 5: Project Management; Chapter 6: Process Management; Chapter 7: Finance and Accounting; Chapter 8: Marketing and Sales; Part II: Chapter 9: Implementation: Strategy and Change; Chapter 10: Implementation and Technology;” p. viii-xi

“Theory Of Constraints (TOC) gets its name from the fact that all enterprises are constrained by something… So a first step in applying TOC is to figure out where the constraints are… The second step in applying TOC is to utilize the constraint to its fullest extent… The third step in applying TOC is to make sure that nonconstraints keep the constraint busy – but otherwise stay out of the way… The fourth step in applying TOC is to improve productivity of the constraint…  The final step in applying TOC is to repeat the previous steps.   This step is more important than it might seem at first, because the foregoing steps may have caused the constraint to shift.” p. 8-9

46. Sawatani Y, Spohrer J, Kwan S, Takenaka T, editors (2016) Serviceology for Smart Service System: Selected papers of the 3rd International Conference of Serviceology. Springer.

“Services are not merely key economic activities, but also major factors that improve our quality of life, make local communities prosperous, and then provide a foundation for solving emerging issues. … The Society for Serviceology (SfS) was launched in Japan in October 2012 and been developed globally.” p. v

47. Schneiderman B, Plaisant C (2004) Designing the user interface: 4th Edition: strategies for effective human-computer interaction. Pearson Education.

“New technologies provide extraordinary – almost supernatural – powers to those people who master them.” p. 4

48. Schank RC (1983) Dynamic memory: A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people. Cambridge University Press.

“What is a dynamic memory? It is a flexible, open-ended system… A library does not have a dynamic memory.  It changes with great difficulty.” p. 1

“The human memory system, and hence any sensibly designed computer model of that memory system must have the ability to cope with new information in a reasonable way.” p. 19

49. Searle JR (1995)The construction of social reality. Simon and Schuster.

“The Building Blocks of Social Reality: The Metaphysical Burden of Social Reality:  This books is about a problem that has puzzled me for a long time: there are portions of the real world, objective facts in the world, that are only facts by human agreement. In some sense there are things that exist only because we believe them to exist.  I am thinking of things like money, property, governments, and marriages.” p. 1

50. Spohrer JC, Engelbart DC (2004) Converging technologies for enhancing human performance: Science and business perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. May 1;1013(1):50-82.

[The gist is people want value co-creation experiences that are also capability co-elevation transformations.   Think about healthcare, education, and governance – healthy, wealthy, and wise…]

“Converging technologies refers to a type of co-evolutionary process that is characterized by rapid advances across multiple areas of technology (nano-bio-info-cogno or NBIC), accelerated by interdisciplinary cross-fertilization as the advances in one area spill over into other areas.” p. 50

“About 6% of the estimated hundred billion people who ever lived are alive today and, given the exponential growth rate of world population, this percentage is increasing each year (Haub, 2002).” p. 50

“So, by some measure, the totality of human experience is roughly 10**19 seconds’ worth of experience – all of language, all of culture, and all artifacts.  The percentage of directly observable human experience is on the rise… ” p. 73

51. Spohrer J, Kwan SK (2009) Service science, management, engineering, and design (SSMED): Outline and references. Working paper pages 1-67, later shortened and published in the International Journal of Information Systems in the Service Sector. 1(3):1-33

“The growth of the global service economy has led to a dramatic increase in our daily interactions with highly specialized service systems. These daily interactions are both frequent and diverse, and may include retail, financial, healthcare, education, online, communications, technical support, entertainment, transportation, legal, professional, government or many other types of specialized interactions.” p. 1

“This paper sketches an outline and preliminary set of references to provoke discussions about the difficult challenge of integrating multiple disciplines to create a new and unique service science.” p. 1

“References and Selected Quotations.” p. 25-67 — annotated bibliography

52. Spohrer, J, Fodell, D, and Murphy M (2012) Ten reasons why service science matters to universities.”  EDUCAUSE Review 47(6):52-65.

“Higher education is being reshaped little by little every day…  What is not changing is the economy.  It is what parents want for their children, as well as what professionals want for themselves as lifelong learners with growing career aspirations.  So how can institutions compete on the global stage of higher education? Through service science, the emerging science that studies value co-creation in complex systems and proven innovation techniques already being used in other industries.” p. 53

“Nevertheless, for our purposes in this article, service phenomena are observed in everyday life as the application of knowledge and resources for the benefit of others.” p. 54.

” Ten reasons: 1. Universities are complex service systems of fundamental importance. 2 Disciplines are infusing service innovation concepts into curriculum. 3. Service science can help universities overcome discipline silos. 4. University-based startups are often new types of online service.  5. Professional associations are adding service science SIGs.  6. Cities, home to most universities, are complex service systems. 7. Service failures are costly and can derail the careers of students.  8.  Service science can help universities move up in rankings. 9. Service science can contribute to good industry-university relations and interactions. 10. Service science can help all universities improve their service excellence ‘game.'” p. 54-64.

53. Spohrer J, Maglio PP (2010) Service science: Toward a smarter planet. In Introduction to service engineering, Eds. Karwowski and Salvendy. Wiley.  pp. 1-33.

“Foundations: Service science is short for Service Science, Manageing, Engineering and Design, also know as SSMED.  It began as a ‘call to action,’ focusing academics, businesses, and governments on the need for reearch and edcuation in areas related to service…  But exactly what counts as service science?  Simply put, service science aims to explain and improve interactions in which multiple entities work together to achinve win-win outcomes or mutual benefit…” p. 3

“Appendix I: Service-Dominant Logic.  The Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic for marketing is a worldview (or mindset) relevant in the service science community (Vargo and Lusch 2004).  The ten foundational premises… (FP1) Service is the fundamental basis of exchange. (FP2) Indirect exchange masks the fundamental basis of exchange. (FP3) Goods are distribution mechamisms for service provision. (FP4) Operant resources are the fundamental source of competitive advantage. (FP5) All economies are service economies.  (FP6) The customer is always a co-creator of value. (FP7) The enterprise cannot deliver value, but only offer value propositions. (FP8) A service-centered view is inherently customer oriented and relational. (FP9) All economic and social actors are resource integrators. (FP10) Value is always uniquely and phenomenologically determined by the beneficiary.” p. 27-30.

“Appendix II: Evolution Examples: Lottery, Installment Payment Plans” p. 30-33.


54. Spohrer J, Banavar G (2015) Cognition as a Service: An Industry Perspective. AI Magazine. Dec 1;36(4):71-86.

“Recent advances in cognitive computing componentry combined with other factors are leading to commercially viable cognitive systems… Cognition as a service can help unlock the mysteries of big data and ultimately boost the creativity and productivity of professionals… ” p. 71

55. Steele, RD (2010) Intelligence for Earth: Clarity, Diveristy, Integrity, and Sustainability. Earth Intelligence Network

[Lays out twelve policies that must be managed together and somehow harmonized across connected regions of the world]


56. Tecuci G, Marcu D, Boicu M, Schum DA (2016) Knowledge Engineering: Building Cognitive Assistants for Evidence-based Reasoning 1st Edition. Cambridge University Press.
[cognitive solutions software engineers and architects/designers should read this book if they want to understand good-old-fashion-AI combined with supervised learning for cognitive systems – the user guiding the development of the system, after the foundation is laid]

57. Wolfrson, A (2016) Sustainable service.  Business Expert Press.

“Service and service dominant logic driving today’s global economy influence every aspect of our lives, in the process, shaping our social and natural environments.” p. i

58. Wright, Robert (2000) Non-Zero: The Logic of  Human Destiny. Vintage/Random House. New York, NY.

“Sometimes political scientists or economists break human interaction down into zero-sum and non-zero-sum components.  Occasionally, evolutionary biologists do the same in looking at the way various living systems work.  My contention is that, if we want to see what drives the direction of both human history and organic evolution, we should apply this perspective more systematically.  Interactions among individual genes, or cells, or animals, among interest groups, or nations, or corporations, can be viewed through the lenses of game theory.  What follows is a survey of human history, and of organic history, with those lenses in place.  My hope is to illuminate a kind of force – the non-zero-sum dynamic – that has crucially shaped the unfolding of life on earth so far.” (Pg. 5);

“In short, both organic and human history involve the playing of every-more-numerous, ever-larger, and ever-more-elaborate non-zero-sum games.  It is the accumulation of these games – game upon game upon game – that constitutes the growth of biological and social complexity…” (Pp. 6-7)

Book: Friedman’s “Thank-you for being late: An optimist’s guide to thriving in the age of accelerations”

Friedman TL (2016) Thank-you for being late: An optimist’s guide to thriving in the age of accelerations.  NY: Farrae, Stauss, Grioux.
Part I: Reflecting

Chapter 1: Thank-you for being late

“I enjoy taking a complex subject and trying to break it down so that I can understand it and then help readers better understand it – be that subject the Middle East, the environment, globalization, or American politics…  the words of Marie Curie never rang more true to me or felt more relevant: ‘Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood.  Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.'” p. 3

“As John E. Kelly III, IBM’s senior vice president for cognitive solutions and IBM Research … ‘the feeling being engendered now among a lot of people is that of always being in this state of acceleration.’  In such a time, opting to pause and reflect, rather than panic or withdraw, is a necessity.  It is not a luxury or a distraction – it is a way to increase the odds that you’ll better understand, and engage productively with, the world around you.” p. 4

“… DC traffic and subways in the morning are always a crapshoot… On one of those occasions, I realized I didn’t care at all about my guest’s tardiness, so I said, ‘No, no please – don’t apologize.  In fact, you know what, thank you for being late!’  Because he was late, I explained, I had minted time for myself.  I had ‘found’ a few minutes to just sit and think.” p. 5

“… Muller observes how many times people say to him ‘I am so busy.’ ‘We say this to one another with no small degree of pride…’  ‘… to whiz through all obligations without time for a single, mindful breath, this has become a model of a successful life.’ I’d rather learn to pause.  … And it is not just knowledge that is improved by pausing.  So, too, is the ability to build trust…” p. 6

“That is why, I explained to Boija, as a columnist, ‘I am either in the heating business or the lighting business.’  Every column or blog has to either turn on a light in your reader’s head… or stoke an emotion in your reader’s heart.’ …the ideal column does both… involves mixing three basic ingredients: your own values, priorities, and aspirations; how you think the biggest forces, the world’s biggest gears and pulleys, are shaping events; and what you’ve learned about people and culture – how they react or don’t – when the big forces impact them… When I refer to the world’s big gears and pulleys, I am talking about what I call ‘the Machine.’ (Hat tip to Ray Dalio, the renowned hedge fund investor, who describes the economy as ‘a machine.’)… Part II is about how I think the Machine works now…  And Part III is about how these accelerating forces are affecting people and cultures…  Part IV offers the conclusions I draw from it all.  In short, this book is one giant column about the world today.” p. 12-13

Part II: Accelerating

Chapter 2: What the hell happened in 2007?

“… Steve Jobs tool the stage at the Moscone Center in San Francisco on January 9, 2007, to announce that Apple had reinvented the mobile phone.” p. 19

“… It was also in 2007 that David Ferrucci, who lead the Semantics Analysis and Integration Department at IBM’s Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, and his team began building a cognitive computer called Watson.” p 21

“… in 2007, the cost of DNA sequencing began to fall dramatically…” p. 22

“As the graphs on the next two pages display, 2007 was clearly a turning point for many technologies.” p. 22

“‘The Market’ is my shorthand for the acceleration of globalization.” p. 26

“The term ‘Great Acceleration’ was coined in 2005 by these same scientists to capture the holistic, comprehensive, and interlinked nature of all these changes simultaneously sweeping across the globe and reshaping the human and biophysical landscapes of the Earth system.” p. 27

“It is the core argument of this book that these simultaneous accelerations in the Market, Mother Nature, and Moore’s law together constitute the ‘age of accelerations,’ in which we now find ourselves. These are the central gears driving the Machine today.” p. 27

“In other words, if it is true that it now takes us ten to fifteen years to understand a new technology and then build out new laws and regulations to safeguard society, how do we regulate when the technology has come and gone in five to seven years? This is a problem.” p. 33

“Another big problem is the way we educate our population.” p. 33

“All of these are signs ‘that our societal structures are failing to keep pace with the rate of change,’ he said.  Everything feels like it’s in constant catch-up mode. What to do? We certainly don’t want to slow down technological progress or abandon regulation.  The only adequate response, said Teller, ‘is that we try to increase our society’s ability to adapt.” p. 33 [JCS: This is what Doug Engelbart said in ‘Augmenting Human Intellect’ in 1962]

Chapter 3: Moore’s Law

“As he put it in that now famous Electronics article, which appeared on April 19, 1965, entitled ‘Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits’: ‘The complexity for minimum component costs has increase at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year… There is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least ten years.’ The Caltech engineering professor Carver Mead, a friend of Moore’s, latter dubbed this ‘Moore’s Law.'” [This chapter covers a lot of technology ground, including: transistors, integrated circuits, microprocessors, sensors, internet of things, WiFi, storage, memory, DRAM, Hadoop, GitHub, networks, cellphones, smartphones, CDMA, TDMA, 3G,4G,5G, the cloud]

Chapter 4: The Supernova

“All of that, in turn vastly amplifying the power of one.  What one person – one single, solitary person – can now do constructively and destructively is also being multiplied to  a new level…  and, and finally, this same supernova is amplifying the power of many.” p. 87

“As a result, the motto in Silicon Valley today is: everything that is analog is now being digitized, everything that is being digitized is now being stored, everything that is stored is now being analyzed by software on these more powerful computing systems, and all the learning is being immediately applied to old things in fundamentally new ways.  For example, the inventionof Uber taxi service…” p. 94

“Something interesting is happening here… Something sure is, and the rest of this chapter is about how makers big and small are taking advantage of all the new powers coming out of the supernova to do totally new things, and to do really old things faster and smarter.” p. 97

Chapter 5: The Market

“Kavon Beykpour is the cofounder and CEO of Periscope – the live-streaming video app launched in March 2014 that within four months had ten million users.  It was quickly bought by Twitter… ” p. 118

“‘The principal factor promoting historically significant social change is contact with strangers possessing new and unfamiliar skills.” p. 147

Chapter 6: Mother Nature

“This is what I mean by ‘the power of many.’ We as a species are now a force of, in, and on nature. That has never been said of humans before the twentieth century…” p. 164

“‘The Great Acceleration marks the phenomenal growth of the global socio-economic system, the human part of the Earth System. It is difficult to overestimate the scale and speed of change. In little over two generations – or a single lifetime – humanity (or until recently a small fraction of it) has become a planetary-scale geological force. Hitherto human activities were insignificant compared with biophysical Earth System, and the two could operate independently.  However, it is now impossible to view one as separate from the other.” p. 165

Part III: Innovating

Chapter 7: Just too damned fast

“Now that we have defined the age of accelerations, two questions come to mind – one primal, and one intellectual.  The primal one is this: Are things just getting too damned fast? The intellectual one is: Since the technological forces driving this change in the pace of change are not likely to slow down, how do we adapt?” p. 187

“The only way to thrive is by maintaining dynamic stability… It’s innovation in everything other than technology.  It is reimagining and redesigning your society’s workplace, politics, geopolitics, ethics, and communities – in ways that will enable more citizens on more days in more ways to keep pace with how these accelerations are reshaping their lives and generate more stability… ” p. 199

Chapter 8:  Turning AI into IA

“Let’s get one thing straight: The robots are not destined to take all the jobs.  That happens only if we let them …if we don’t accelerate innovation in the labor/education/startup realms, if we don’t reimagine the whole conveyor belt from primary education to work to lifelong learning.” p.  203

“… you need to work harder, regularly reinvent yourself, obtain at least some form of postsecondary education, make sure you are engaged in lifelong learning, and play by the new rules while also reinventing some of them.  Then you can be in the middle class.” p. 2015

“The New Social Contract: But can everyone keep up? … we need to rethink three key social contracts – those between workers and employers, students and educational institutions, and citizens and governments.  That is the only way to create an environment in which every person is able to realize their full talent potential and human capital becomes a universal, inalienable right.” p. 207

“Fortunately, new technology tools will aid in this endeavor.  The new social contracts we need between government, business, the social sector, and workers will be far more feasible if we find creative ways … to turn ‘AI into IA.’  In my rendering, that would be to turn artificial intelligence into intelligent assistance, intelligent assistants, and intelligent algorithms.” p. 212

“‘When you have a compounding problem, you need a compounding solution.’  Turning more forms of AI into more forms of IA is that solution.” p. 213

“‘The role of the engineer we envision is that of ‘systems architect’ of complex technical, social, economic, and political systems capable of addressing the global challenges we face,’ said Miller.” p. 222-223 [Richard Miller, President of Olin Engineering College;  STEEP = Social, Technical, Economic, Environmental, Political” – these are what service scientists call service systems.]

“The Brilliant Janitor: … Hint: thanks to intelligent assistants, it’s become a knowledge worker job.” p. 230

“…what I would call stempathy jobs . These are jobs that require and reward the ability to leverage technical and interpersonal skills… ” p. 239 [This is what many service scientists call T-shaped professionals, with depth for problem solving and breadth for communications across many disciplines, systems, and cultures. see]

Chapter 9: Control vs Kaos

“‘… the main focus of American foreign policy shifted from war to governance, and from what other governments did beyond their borders to what they did and how they organized within them.'” p. 245

“The Inequality of Freedom: The accelerations in the Markets, Mother Nature, and Moore’s Law are stressing frail states not only from the outside but also from below. That is, both technology and globalization today, are empowering ‘political makers’ … ” p. 270

Chapter 10: Mother Nature as political mentor

“‘If we are evolving to be more like nature, we better damn well get good at it,” observed the physicist and environmentalist Amory Lovins.  I agree.  So let’s first try to understand the basic strategies that Mother Nature employs to build resilient ecosystems…” p. 301

Chapter 11: Is God in cyberspace?

“If there is ever a time to pause for moral reflection it is now… To put it bluntly, we have created a world in which human beings have become more godlike than ever before.” p. 340

“That is why I insist that as a species, we have never before stood at this moral fork in the road – where one of us can kill all of us and all of us could ix everything if we really decided to do so.” p. 342

Chapter 12: Always looking for Minnesota

“The closest political analogue for the eye of a hurricane that I can think of is a healthy community.  When people feel embedded in a community, they feel ‘protected, respected, and connected”” p. 339

“Something in the Water: Whenever I look back on the impact of growing up in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, had on me, I can’t help but recall…. ” p. 365 [what follows is really touching and amazing – and I will not try to summarize it, other than to say this was probably my favorite part of the book – even more than AI for IA, believe it or not. So get the book and read it yourself. Trust me, you will be glad you did.  Just think about the minority that you were part of when you grew up.]

Chapter 13: You can go back home again (and you should!)

“But the question tugged at me, and I asked over and over was: What was that ‘it’ that was being sustained? I needed to know because I wanted to bottle ‘it’ and share ‘it.’  Nothing, it seemed to me, would be more useful in the age of accelerations.” p. 411

“‘There is not an undercurrent, but an overcurrent, of acceptance that everyone has the right to pursue their goals and dreams.;” p. 429  [FYI: In service science community, some of us talk about transformation > experience > data > software > hardware — what changes and what stays the same, is important.]

Part IV: Anchoring

Chapter 14: From Minnesota to the world and back

“But it is impossible for me to believe that with so many more people now empowered to invent, compete, create, and collaborate, with so many more cheap and powerful tools enabling us to optimize social and commercial and government interactions, that we won’t develop the capability to solve the big social and healthy problems in the world and that, in the process, we won’t be able to find ways for humans to become even more resilient, productive, prosperous as they are reinforced by intelligent machines.” p. 451

The future of value-seeking in two inequalities

How well do we understand the future? How well do we understand “value-seeking” and these two inequalities?

Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware

Wisdom > Understanding > Knowledge > Information > Data

Some service science researchers are trying to deepen our understanding of these two inequalities to understand better the future of value-seeking in business and society.

Let’s examine each in turn, and identify some relevant literature…

(1) Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware

The three best references to decode the TEDSH inequality are…

Pine BJ, Gilmore JH (1999) The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage. Harvard Business Press.
(this explains why Experience > Data, and if your read the last chapter why Transformation > Experience)

Domingos P (2015) The master algorithm: How the quest for the ultimate learning machine will remake our world. Basic Books.
(this explains why Data > Software)

Gelernter D (1993) Mirror worlds: Or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox… How it will happen and what it will mean. Oxford University Press.
(this explains why Software > Hardware; and really XaaS – Everything as a Service – everything as an information/data service)

The gist is people want value co-creation experiences that are also capability co-elevation transformations.   Think about healthcare, education, and governance – healthy, wealthy, and wise…

In sum, read:

Spohrer JC, Engelbart DC (2004) Converging technologies for enhancing human performance: Science and business perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. May 1;1013(1):50-82.


(2) Wisdom > Understanding > Knowledge > Information > Data

The classic to understand WUKID, or sometimes reversed as DIKUW:

Ackoff, RL (1989) From data to wisdom. Journal of applied systems analysis. 16(1):3-9.

A more recent good attempt at WUKID sometimes described in the other order as DIKUW is this piece:
dos Santos Sarraipa JF (2013) Semantic Adaptability for the Systems Interoperability (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Nova de Lisboa).
…. though I think the interpretations and conclusions are off a bit, the input research is quite useful in the above.

Closer to reality is this line of thinking I believe:

Data is about entities doing measurement (interactions with the world – one part of reality is partially reflected in another part of reality – beginning of models – mirror worlds)

Information is about entities doing communications (interactions with the social world – entities with storage/dynamic memory/models)

Knowledge is about entities doing reasoning that build more knowledge to change interaction outcomes (circular reasoning I know – this is where purpose comes in)

Understanding is about entities doing discovery that builds models for building knowledge faster and more accurately/truth-seeking (learning – this is where proto and scientific method comes in to create better explanations)

Wisdom is about entities resolving conflicts in ways that also benefit future generation, including but not limited to existential challenges and questions (learning – ????).

Nobody fully understands intelligence or wisdom yet.  Does ???? = value-seeking.   I don’t think so.  Not unless value-seeking is simply about entities doing rapid rebuilding from scratch.  Why rapidly rebuilding from scratch?  I can think of know other capability that leads to more efficiently and systematically exploring large design spaces for modularizing the construction of emergent layers of reality to discovery new modes of interaction and new types of capabilities.  This is a big open question.

Without trying to make sense of the direction of evolution, this is the classic paper about systems that learn:
March JG (1991) Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization science. Feb;2(1):71-87.

One attempt at understanding the direction of evolution for smarter service system entities is this work, which I consider a classic when combined with Doug Engelbart’s augmentation evolution work:
Wright R (2001) Nonzero: The logic of human destiny. Vintage.

Of course, wisdom (and WUKID) is required to address Wicked Problems…

The classic reading on Wicked Problems is this…

Churchman, CW  (1967) Wicked Problems.  Guest Editorial, Management Science. 14(4):B-141-B-146.

This is also good for Wicked Problems and Design Thinking for Social Entrepreneurs/Innovators
Kolko J (2012) Wicked Problems: Problems Worth Solving: An introduction to wicked problems. AC4D.

In Conclusion

In the cognitive era, as individuals and institutions learn to build, understand, and work with digital cognitive systems, the bigger picture is the process of intelligence augmentation (IA), which is based in part on AI (Artificial Intelligence) work from computer science.

IA is the human journey and story….  it is about both people (organizations-institutions) and machines (technology-infrastructure) as the environment shaping the evolution of entities.   This story is the story of what Kline calls the socio-technical systems design loop — or what Spohrer and other service science colleagues call the evolution from smarter service systems to wiser service systems….

Kline SJ (1995) Conceptual foundations for multidisciplinary thinking. Stanford University Press.
(this explains service science and T-shapes in terms of what Kline calls the socio-technical system design loop and multidisciplinary thinking)

Norman DA (1993)Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Basic Books.
(this explains augmented intelligence very well – perhaps the best I have seen from a cognitive science and design perspectives)

Another classic foundational paper, and service science was almost called “augmentation science” – after  conversation with Doug Engelbart
Engelbart DC (1962) Augmenting human intellect: a conceptual framework.  SRI Summary Report AFOSR-3223, Prepared for: Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington DC, Contract AF 49(638)-1024, SRI Project No. 3578 (AUGMENT,3906,).

In sum, the future in two inequalities:

Transformation > Experience > Data > Software > Hardware

Wisdom > Understanding > Knowledge > Information > Data

Some service science researchers are trying to deepen our understanding of these two inequalities to shift the study of from smarter service systems to wiser service systems.

Learning systems that can learn to play “better” games create an evolving ecology of social entities.   The evolving ecology of service system entities with capabilities, constraints, rights, and responsibilities is moving into the future – in part driven by the two value-seeking inequalities above.