Engelbart on Improving Improvement

Doug Engelbart is most well-known for the invention of the mouse, and being an internet pioneer (the first leg of the internet connected to his lab in California).

However, for those who know his work, these contributions are not the most significant.

Doug’s vision for improving improvement to better tackle complex, urgent problems is to many his most significant contribution.

Here is one of Doug Engelbart’s papers on that topic:

Improving Our Ability to Improve: A Call for Investment in a New Future

My favorite quote from that paper is this:

The shovel is a tool, and so is a bulldozer. Neither works on its own, “automating” the task of digging. But both tools augment our ability to dig. And the one that provides the greatest augmentation, not surprisingly, takes the most training and experience in order to use it really effectively.

The capability infrastructure requires the co-evolution of the tool system and the human system as Doug so simply put it.

The above paper was part of the 2003 IBM Research – Almaden, San Jose, CA event:

Symposium on the Coevolution of Technology and Business Innovation

More pointers to that event below….



CFP: T-Summit Book (short 4-page papers)

Dear T-Summit enthusiast,

Thanks for your interest in and contributions to past T-Summits.

We are collecting extended abstract/short 4-page papers now for an ISSIP BEP T-Summit book (http://www.issip.org/issip-partnership/).

First draft submissions should be sent to BEPEditors@issip.org by May 1st.

Authors will be notified by August 1st or sooner, if their short paper will be included or needs revision.

T-Summit short paper topics include:

– What is a T-shaped professionals? What institutions hire T-shapes? What institutions create T-shapes?  

    – How and why do T-shapes make the best adaptive innovators? the best entrepreneurs? the best life-long learners?

    – Breadth and depth of knowledge, skills, and competencies, combined with 21st Century mindset, and knowledge of self and others in large co-creation networks

    – Transformational change of education to create graduates and lifelong learners with T-shaped skills

    – Project-based and experiential learning, with industry-academic-government-and-professional-association collaboration and badges

    – 21st Century (Cognitive Era) mindset, how success is determined more by what we can do with our knowledge, than simply how much we know

    – What is a T-shaped mindset? How does empathy, growth mindset, design thinking, systems thinking, service thinking combine in T-shapes?

    – How early should education begin cultivating T-shaped mindsets in students?  How best can it be done at different ages and skill levels?

    – What simple and sophisticated faculty best practices can help students learn teamwork?

    – What do industry practitioners need to do to help cultivate and mentor T-shaped students and peers?

    – What public policy can help promote the transformation needed in education, industry, government, and professional associations to promote T-shaped development?

    – What can students do to develop at T-shapes, and help their institutions and network better evolve towards and embrace the T-model?

   – Other T-shaped related topics and questions.

ISSIP BEP T-Summit Book Team
Haluk Demirkan, Yassi Moghaddam, Phil Gardner, Jim Spohrer

P.S. Please use your LinkedIn profile URL for complimentary ISSIP registration to get more information about T Summits: http://www.issip.org/wp-login.php?action=register

CFP: ICSS 2016, Oct. 15-16, 2016, Chongqing, China

The 9th International Conference on Service Science (ICSS 2016)

Theme: Cognitive Service Science and Big Services

October 15-16, 2016, Chongqing, China



Chongqing University, China

IBM China

Technical Committee of Services Computing, China Computer Federation (CCF)

Background and History

International Conference on Service Science (ICSS) is an annual academic event initiated by IBM and directed by the Advisory and Steering Committee on Serviceology in China, and is also one of the top events of service science community in China. ICSS features a unique mix of academic, industrial, and cross-discipline topics, and provides a platform for the presentation and exchange of research results and practical experiences as well as education development on serviceology. ICSS also aims at bridging the perspectives of researchers and the needs of practitioners. The speakers in the conference include many of the leading service science experts from both academia and service industries around the world.

Service Science, an emerging cross-discipline area, addresses key research and practice issues in developing modern service industries. ICSS focuses on the complementary and synergistic aspects of established fields such as computer science, informatics, software engineering, operation research, industrial engineering, management science, social and cognitive sciences, which are expected to contribute to the further development of service sciences. Furthermore, ICSS also encourages exploring and studying scientific and practical issues that are fundamental to the service sector including management theories and techniques with unique service perspectives.

The previous eight ICSS events were successfully held at Beijing (2008 and 2009), Hangzhou (2010), Taipei (2011), Shanghai (2012), Shenzhen (2013), Wuxi (2014), and Weihai (2015). Over 100 experts around the world attended each of the ICSS conferences. Following this trend, ICSS 2016 will be held in Chongqing, a major city in Southwest China and one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China.

ICSS 2016 aims to bring together scholars and students, researchers and managers of serviceology related areas and industries for intellectual exchanges, research cooperation, education and professional development. ICSS 2016 will offer keynote speeches and three tracks (research track, application, industry and education track, work-in-progress track), for inviting presentations of theoretical research findings and case study in service science and its related fields, and also offers excellent networking opportunities to participants, with a wonderful taste of local culture in Chongqing.

Honorary Chairs

Junliang Chen, Professor of BUPT, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Fuqing Yang, Professor of Peking University, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Conference Co-Chairs

Xiaofei Xu, Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology

Xiaowei Shen, Director, IBM Research China

Dan Yang, Professor, Chongqing University

Program Committee Co-Chairs

Weiping Li, Professor, Peking University

Qingyu Xiong, Professor, Chongqing University

Zhongjie Wang, Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology

Tracks and Topics of Interests

Research Track

The ICSS 2016 research track seeks original, unpublished research papers reporting substantive new work in various aspects of services science, management, engineering, and technology. Research papers must properly cite related work and clearly indicate their contributions to the field of serviceology and related fields. All topics relevant to serviceology are of interest, but the conference program committee particularly encourages submissions in the following categories:

  1. Cognitive Service Science
  • Service and service system modeling, simulation and analysis
  • Human behavior in service systems
  • The dynamics of service system evolution
  • Service optimization methods
  • Data mining for service intelligence
  • Service psychology
  • Fundamentals of service science and serviceology
  • Idealized cognitive model
  • Big data and cognitive service
  • Mathematical models describing cognitive processing
  • Cognitive linguistics
  • Context-aware service computation
  • Self-adaptable service computation
  1. Service Management
  • Consumer/customer service experience
  • Customer relationship management
  • Service supply chain management
  • Human resource management in services
  • Service project management
  • Service development process management
  • Service quality management
  • Service marketing management
  • Service-dominant logic of marketing
  • Service communication
  • Service value and pricing
  • Service branding
  1. Service Innovation and Design
  • Service design methodology
  • Service innovation theory
  • Business model innovation
  • Service value modeling and optimization
  • Business service process modeling and design
  • Social network and service innovation
  • Innovation and service industry evolution
  • Tools and techniques for IT service innovation and management
  • Globalization of service innovation
  1. Software Service Engineering
  • Service oriented requirement engineering
  • Service oriented architecture and engineering
  • Service design methodology
  • Model driven service engineering
  • Service composition and convergence
  • Service optimization methods
  • Service development and implementation
  • Domain oriented service engineering
  • SaaS based software service engineering
  • Service quality evaluation and assurance
  • Service demand forecasting, pricing, and planning
  • Data mining for service intelligence
  • User contribution systems
  • Mobile services
  1. Cloud Computing and Services
  • Cloud computing architectures and cloud solution design patterns
  • Infrastructure, platform, application, business, social, and mobile clouds
  • Self-service cloud portal, dashboard, and analytics
  • Cloud quality management and Service Level Agreement (SLA)
  • Cloud configuration, performance, and capacity management
  • Cloud migration service
  • Services in cloud computing
  1. Big Data and Big Services
  • Foundational models for big data and big service
  • Algorithms and programming techniques for big data processing
  • Big data persistence and preservation
  • Big data quality and provenance control
  • Management issues of social network big data
  • Privacy preserving big data analytics
  • Algorithms and systems for big data search
  • Visualization analytics for big data

Application, Industry and Education Track

The Applications, Industry and Education Track papers should generally have results from (ideally) real world development, deployment, and experiences delivering solutions of serviceology whereas research track papers should generally have either theoretical results or early implementation/prototype demonstrations. Additionally, an Applications, Industry and Education track paper can be structured like an “experience report” paper where one important section is “Lessons learned” or general advices gained from the experience. Other appropriate sections are general background on the solutions, overview of the solutions, and directions for future innovation and improvements.

  1. Applications and Industry Practice
  • Public Services: including services in public sectors, e.g. healthcare, government, education, transportation and logistics, traffic control, telecommunication, smart city, etc.
  • Private Services: including production services such as small business, distribution, retailing, etc; and life services such as service for social and cultural events, e-business services, social-network services, smart home services, etc.
  • Services in industrial sectors and manufacturing servitization
  • Other modern services applications
  1. Education and Curricula Development
  • Service science education and curricula design
  • Methodology and practice of service science curricula design
  • E-learning and MOOC course development on service science
  • Practice and experience of teaching and learning of service science
  • Professional requirement and development in modern service sectors
  • Case study for service science education

Working-In-Progress (WIP) Track

The ICSS 2016 WIP track provides a forum for attendees to illustrate and discuss their latest services computing related plans, projects, and advances, even when implementation or deployment has not been fully completed. However, the work should be advanced enough as to allow attendees to appreciate its scope and significance. Submissions may target on any topic related to the conference, describing on-going work at your institution. The Work-in-Progress papers will be an important way of sharing what is happening in serviceology research and applications, so please feel free to submit your papers to ICSS 2016.

Important Dates

Call for Paper Release:              February 6, 2016

Submission Due:                       May 15, 2016

Notification of Acceptance:        July 15, 2016

Camera Ready Copy Due:        August 10, 2016

Author Registration Due:           August 10, 2016

Conference Date:                      October 15-16, 2016


Accepted papers (except those papers that are recommended to above list of journals) will be included in the conference proceedings which will be published by IEEE CPS and will be included in IEEE Xplore and the IEEE Computer Society (CSDL) digital libraries. IEEE will arrange for indexing through IEE INSPEC, EI (Compendex), Thomson ISI, and other indexing services.

Submission Guidelines

High quality research papers and case studies are invited to be submitted through the following link:


Each paper will be rigorously reviewed by three members of the program committee based on relevance to ICSS, significance, originality, technical soundness and clarity of presentation. All submissions must be original work and must not have been published elsewhere and must not be currently under consideration by any other conferences or journals. Submitting a paper means that, if the paper is accepted, at least one author will pay the registration fee and attend the conference to present the paper. ICSS 2016 enforces a “no show” policy and only papers that are presented by an author/co-author at the conference will be sent for inclusion in the IEEE digital libraries or journals.

Each submission should meet the following requirements:

  • No more than 8 pages (including references, illustrations, and appendices) for research track and application/industry/education tracks
  • No more than 3 pages (including references, illustrations, and appendices) for Working-In-Progress track.
  • A short abstract around 150 words and keywords contained on the first page.
  • Double-column, single-spaced text in 10 point Times Roman for the body.
  • No page numbers.
  • No headers and footers.
  • Standard US-letter size.
  • PDF format.


ICSS 2016 will offer one Best Paper award and one Best Student Paper award. The best papers are selected from the accepted papers of the research track.


Dr. Jun Zeng           Email: icss2016@cqu.edu.cn

CFP: IJPR – “Service Transformation in Industrial Companies”

“Service Transformation in Industrial Companies”
in the International Journal of Production Research

Dear colleagues,
It is our pleasure to inform you that the deadline for submitting an abstract to the special issue “Service Transformation in Industrial Companies” in the International Journal of Production Research has been postponed to April 15th, 2016. Please find below and attached more information about the special issue.

The distinctive feature of this Special Issue (SI) is on understanding how manufacturing companies are mastering their service transformation. The SI will heavily rely on papers which provide real, concrete and tangible evidence of lessons learned from industrial companies which have either benefitted or conversely suffered from their endeavor during their servitization journey.
Contributions will mainly rely on high-quality original unpublished research, industrial case studies, surveys, panels, multi-stakeholder projects.
Submitted papers have to comply with the philosophy of the journal. Potential topics include but are not limited to:
Service (open) innovation
Product-service strategy and new business models
Methods and tools to support the servitization shift
Role of education in the future of service economy
Software-based services in the digital era
Complex service network management
Service performance management
Role of data in service design, deployment and enhancement
The role of key enabling technologies (additive manufacturing, IoT, cloud computing or cognitive science) in service transformation
Change management in service transformation
Service operations and value chains
Product-service systems engineering

Submission of extended abstract (2 pages): February 29th,  2016 -> April 15th, 2016
Notification of acceptance for submission of full paper: March 31st, 2016-> May 15th, 2016
Submission of full paper: June, 30th 2016 -> July 31st, 2016
Publication of the Special Issue (electronic version): Spring 2017- confirmed Spring 2017

More information and details are available in the  attached file and at:

Best regards,

Alice Rondini on behalf of
The Editors

Prof. Sergio Cavalieri, PhD
Director CELS – Research Group on Industrial Engineering, Logistics and Service Operations
University of Bergamo
Viale Marconi, 5 – I-24044 Dalmine (BG)
Ph.  +39-035-2052384
Fax  +39-035-2052077
e-mail: sergio.cavalieri@unibg.it

Zied M. Ouertani, PhD
ABB Corporate Research
Wallstadter Straße 59
68526 Ladenburg
Phone: +49 6203 716041
Fax: +49 6203 716253
e-mail: mohamed-zied.ouertani@de.abb.com

Jiang Zhibin, Ph.D, IIE Fellow
Changjiang Scholar Program Chair Professor (MOE)
Dean, MOOCs Institute;
Chair Professor and Head, Department of Industrial Engineering & Management;
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
800 Dong Chuan Rd, Min Hang District, 200240 Shanghai, China
+86-21 34206409 (phone);
+86-21 34206477 (fax)
e-mail: zbjiang@sjtu.edu.cn

Call for Chapters: Engineering and Management of Data Centers: an IT Service Management Approach

This call for chapters just in again:

forthcoming book titled:
Engineering and Management of Data Centers: an IT Service Management Approach
Dear colleagues interested in Data Centers and high related topics (ITSM,
IT Architecture, IT Management, DevOps, among others):

We call for chapters proposals (title, authors, a 500-word abstract, and
main references) for the forthcoming book titled: “Engineering and
Management of Data Centers: an IT Service Management Approach”, which will be published in the prestigious book series: “Service Science: Research
and Innovations in the Service Economy” edited by Springer-Verlag, London


March 15, 2016 – (optional) submission deadline for chapter proposals
May 31, 2016 – full chapter submission deadline.
July 15, 2016 – editorial decision deadline (accepted, conditioned or
rejected chapter).
August 15, 2016 – conditioned chapter submission deadlines.
September 15, 2016 – editorial decision deadline on conditioned chapters.
September 31, 2016 – camera-ready chapter submission deadline.
First 2017 quarter – estimated publishing period.

Full CFP can be reached at:

Thanks for interest !

Jorge Marx Gómez, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany
Manuel Mora, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico
Rory O’Connor, Dublin City University, Ireland
Wolfgang Nebel, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany
Mahesh Raisinghani, Texas Woman’s University, USA

Manuel Mora, EngD.
Full Professor and Researcher Level C
ACM Senior Member / SNI Level I
Department of Information Systems
Autonomous University of Aguascalientes
Ave. Universidad 940
Aguascalientes, AGS
Mexico, 20131

Service Management and Science Forum, June 24 -26, 2016, Melbourne,

Deadline extended to March 28!!!


Save the Dates



The 11th Annual Meeting of the


Service Management and Science Forum


June 24 -26, 2016


Swinburne University of Technology

Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA






Managing Service in the Era of Social Media and the Role of Business Analytics


Meeting Announcement

The Service Management and Science Forum is a transdisciplinary meeting involving academics and practitioners from all disciplines and organizations that focus on service delivery processes and the service systems that support them. The conference has attracted a number of established researchers across operations, marketing, information technology, design, engineering, and human resource management from higher education institutions and businesses.


The explosion in the use of social media by individuals and organizations provides opportunities for service scientists to examine the role that social media potentially might have in the delivery of quality service. Recently, Aral, Dellarocas & Godes (2013, p. 9) have noted:


There is, currently, little understanding with respect to the best ways in which companies should organize and manage social media. There is no consensus with respect to how responsibility for social media should be allocated within organizations, how social media activities should be funded and governed, what should be outsourced, and what broader changes with regard to an organization’s structures, processes, leadership, training, and culture are needed to harness the potential of the transformative force. There is no established path of activities that lead a company down the path of “social readiness,” and there are no widely accepted industry-specific best practices.


Together with social media data, Big Data and technology are dramatically changing customer service expectations and customer service experiences.  One of the major fuels of this change is the emerging field of business analytics. Business analytics provides the tools to predict, report, and enhance the customer service experience.


This conference therefore encourages submissions that focus not only on the management of services in the era of social media but also business analytics, and especially submissions that are at the intersection of the two.


Keynote Speakers: To Be Determined


Information for Contributors:

Individuals from academia, business and government are invited to submit refereed research papers, non-refereed research abstracts, and proposals for workshops, panels, and symposia. All submissions should have a clear focus on service management and are encouraged to be transdisciplinary in nature; that is, they should involve more than a single traditional discipline. Submissions consistent with the theme of social media in service management are particularly encouraged, but any topic appropriate to service management and/or service science will be welcome.


Submission Deadlines:

The submission deadline for refereed research papers is March 2, 2016. The submission deadline for non-refereed research abstracts and proposals is March 15, 2016.


Additional details about the 2016 Forum will be forthcoming. In the interim, please mark the dates on your calendar and for more information please contact:

Special Issue of Service Science:

There will be a special issue of Service Science with the same focus as this Forum, and will have the title “Managing Service in the Era of Social Media and the Role of Business Analytics.” Selected refereed papers submitted to the 2016 Service Management and Science Forum will be invited to be submitted for this special issue. The deadline for this special issue will be October, 2016.



Program Co-Chairs:

Michael Dixon

Ivey Business School – Western University

London, Ontario, N6G 0N1 Canada

Email: mdixon@ivey.uwo.ca


Ronald Klimberg

St. Joseph’s University

Philadelphia, PA 19131 USA

Email: klimberg@sju.edu


General Chair:

Mark M. Davis

Bentley University

Waltham, MA 02452 USA

Email: mdavis@bentley.edu


Local Arrangements Chair:

Lester W. Johnson

Swinburne Business School

Swinburne University of Technology

Hawthorn, VIC 3122 Australia

Email: lwjohnson@swin.edu.au


Doctoral Student Consortium Coordinator:

Christoph Breidbach

University of Melbourne

Melbourne, VIC 3010 Australia

Email: christoph.breidbach@unimelb.edu.au

ICServ2016 – Tokyo, Japan Sept 6-8, 2016

The 4th International Conference on Serviceology (ICServ2016)

Data: Sept 6(Tue)-8(Thu), 2016

Place: Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan


We are pleased to inform you the 4th international conference on Serviceology (ICServ2016) held in Tokyo.

The main goal of this conference is to provide opportunities for the researchers

from academia and industry to share the latest technologies, methodologies, and case studies

toward co-creation of services in a sustainable society.

We are looking forward to your submission!

Topic of Interests

– Service innovation

– Service design

– Service marketing

– Service management and operations

– Theoretical perspectives on Service

– Value co-creation & context

– Service eco-system

– Human-centered service system

– Service engineering & technologies

– Servitization and produtization

– Service economics & policy

– Service practices (healthcare, tourism, education, communication, retail, food service, contents service, etc.)

The following special organized sessions are also being planned.

– S3FIRE Project

– Meaningful Technology for Seniors

and more!

Important Dates (tentative)

– April 15: Extended abstract (2-4 pages) submission deadline

– May 15: Notification of acceptance

– July 15: Camera Ready paper due

(Please note that at least one of the authors must register for the conference paying registration fees

by July 15th and submit Camera Ready paper with your registration receipt number.)

– July 15: Early Registration deadline

– Aug. 25: On-line Registration deadline

– Sept. 6(Tue)-8(Thu): Conference

Submission Process

Those who want to present your papers should submit an extended abstract first.

The format of an extended abstract can be downloaded at:


When your abstract is accepted, you should submit a full paper or a short paper (work-in-progress papers).

Full paper should contain 4-8 pages and short paper contains 2-4 pages.

All submissions will be handled electronically via the conference’s CMT website:


Contact Info

You can get more information at:


If you have any question, please contact us at:


Resources for faculty and students, with exemplars


The Watson IoT educators guide URL is at

IBM Bluemix online course:
Getting Started with IBM Bluemix – 6hrs online training –
Watson IoT developers page
Redbook: The Interconnecting of Everything
Is your business ready for the Internet of Things
Four ways to drive service innovation with the Internet of Things
Deriving business value from the Internet of Things
The rise of the machine data – Are you prepared?
IBM MessageSight in the Automotive Industry
IBM Point of View: Internet of Things Security
Intro to Bluemix and Internet of Things Foundation  – Part 1
Intro to Bluemix and Internet of Things Foundation  – Part 2
Connected Car
IBM IoT overview and Connected Car demo
Smart Buildings with Sogeti (Recorded)
Smart Buildings with Sogeti (Manual; password: sogetiibm)
Bluemix and Internet of Things
IBM Python app with a Raspberry Pi and Bluemix
IoT Python app with a Raspberry Pi and Bluemix
Build a connected-car IoT app with Geospatial Analytics


Student Projects:

Purdue: https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/cs252/lab6-webapp/projects.html

UT Austin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFsc0B6DN8s

Early Registration Ends 2/19 for T Summit 2016 – Washington, DC March 21-22, National Academy of Sciences building

From:    “T-Summit 2016” <tsummit@issip.org>

A reminder that EARLY REGISTRATION ENDS 2/19 for T-Summit 2016: Transformational Approaches to Creating T-Shaped Professionals

Please join us at the historic National Academy of Sciences building in Washington, DC on March 21-22, 2016 for this conference.  We invite your attendance and active participation!

Featured speakers on the future of T-shaped skills for an adaptive workforce include:

  • André Richier, European Commission
  • Bradley Lukanic, Executive Director, CannonDesign Education Practice
  • Brian MacCraith, President, Dublin City University
  • Desirée van Welsum, Managing Partner, Innovia Strategies
  • E. Gordon Gee, President, West Virginia University
  • Elliot Douglas, Program Director, Engineering Education, NSF
  • Graham Doxey, CEO and Founder Knod Network
  • Lisa Lambert, Vice President, Intel Capital & Managing Director
  • Mary Ann Pacelli, Manager, Workforce Development, NIST
  • Monique Morrow, CTO New Frontiers, Cisco & President ISSIP
  • Nicholas Donofrio, IBM Fellow Emeritus & EVP Innovation and Technology (Retired)
  • P. Kay Lund, Director, Division of Biomedical Research Workforce, NIH
  • Richard Miller, President, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering
  • Susan Singer, Director, Division of Undergraduate Education, NSF
  • Richard Tankersley, Program Director, Graduate Education, NSF
  • Timothy Sands, President, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


And many more featured speakers from industry, academia, government, and professional associations – http://tsummit.org/speakers


Register today to learn about and design models that foster and develop the T-shaped charac­teristics for both the current and future workforce needs.  Please share with colleagues who embrace the T.


If you are no longer interested in receiving T-Summit information, please reply to this message by stating “Opt Out” in the subject line.


Issued on behalf of the T-Summit 2016 Planning Team


From:    “T-Summit 2016” <tsummit@issip.org>
To:    <tsummit@issip.org>
Cc:    <tony@uidp.net>, “Stuart Mease” <smease@vt.edu>, “Sloan, Susan Sauer” <ssloan@nas.edu>, “‘Yassi Moghaddam'” <yassi@issip.org>, “Wawrzynski, Korine” <steinke7@provost.msu.edu>, Jim Spohrer/Almaden/IBM@IBMUS, “Valerie Correale \(vcorreal\)” <vcorreal@cisco.com>

Multiple Perspectives on Service

Multiple perspectives on service from three authors – Maglio, Alter, and Manhaes:

Paul Maglio (UC Merced):
Just read Paul Maglio’s Metaphor piece: http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/full/10.1287/serv.2015.0115

Editorial Column—Metaphors of Service and the Framing of Service Science

Paul wrote:

There are many metaphors related to service. There is the “service encounter” (Bitner et al. 1990), the “moment of truth” (Carlzon 1987), and the “customer journey” (e.g., Tax et al. 2013), compromising the service is a journey metaphor. There is the “front-stage” and the “backstage” (Teboul 2006) and the “service performance” (Berry 1980), comprising the service is performance metaphor. There is the “service factory” (Chase et al. 1992) and the “service operation” (Chase 1978), comprising the service is production metaphor. There is the “cost disease of services” (Baumol and Bowen 1966), comprising the service is a disease metaphor. And there is the “service system” (Maglio et al. 2009) and the “service ecosystem” (Vargo and Akaka 2012) in which multiple entities or actors work to create value together (Vargo et al. 2008), comprising the service is value cocreation metaphor. This is an incomplete list, and individual articles may in fact rely on more than one metaphor. No single metaphor is right, and different metaphors for service may be consistent with many abstract concepts, through sometimes overlapping and contradictory metaphors. But let’s start here. I will discuss each of these metaphors briefly in turn.


Prof. Steve Alter (U San Francisco) :
Steve wrote some time ago:

Instead of searching for one definition of service that almost automatically focuses on some issues and almost automatically creates blinders related to other issues, the new approach is to mimic the main idea of Gareth Morgan’s book Images of Organization. 

Image #1:  Service as activities for the benefit of others
Image #2:  Service as outcomes or benefits for others
Image #3:  Service as a response to a request
Image #4:  Service as a provider-customer interaction
Image #5:  Service as a category distinct from products/services
Image #6:  Service as a direction for change
Image #7:  Service as the basis of economic exchange
Image #8:  Service as a role in a business ecosystem

As with Morgan’s images of organization, each image of service has its own potential value for thinking about service and service systems.

Whether or not this is the best possible set of images of service,T-shaped service scientists should be able to get their heads around something like this approach even though it may seem to defy an engineering, computer science mentality’s need to define concepts precisely.  Their acceptance or rejection of the whole approach might even be an indirect test of their propensity to toward T-shapedness.


Mauricio Manhaes (U Savannah):
Also, I was just reading this piece as well with multiple perspectives on service as well…

Mauricio Manhães created this piece which is worth re-reading:

WHAT – Service Design

Being in the realm of praxis and close to Innovation and to the concept of disequilibrium, service design should be able to answer questions that start with ‘what’ and point to originality and newness. Organisations with questions such as ‘What else can we do?’, should address them to service design discipline experts. These last ones would have to focus their research on new ways of exploring possibilities, of expanding the limits of what is possible. This is, indeed, a very rich and complex research endeavour that should aim to enable people to co-create preferred futures.

WHEN – Service Management

Although the ‘art’ of management is heavily based on tacit knowledge, its focus starts to move towards efficiency and equilibrium. Organisations that need to answer questions related to ‘when’ and timing would ask: ‘When should we start improving our service?’, ‘Is this the right moment to do it?’ or ‘What should we do NOW?’.  The discipline of service management should supply answers based on ‘the lived moment’ of the organisation, even indicating whether managers should pursue solutions created by other disciplines. Knowing ‘what to do and when’ would be the major responsibility of the service management discipline and the focus of its research efforts.

HOW – Service Engineering

Entering the other half of the continuum, the first discipline is service engineering, with its proximity to the concepts of ‘maintenance’ and ‘equilibrium’. With a stronger focus on efficiency, this discipline should be expected to answer questions like ‘How can it be done better?’ and ‘How can we improve the efficiency of this service?’ Its research focus would be on organising best practices and procedures, building models and frameworks that can be repeated by organisations with the best results possible. Service engineering does not need to understand why something works, as long as it works repeatedly.

WHY – Service Science

Service science, predictably, should answer the question of ‘why’. To be able to improve the other disciplines, and to push the envelope of their research, at some point it will be necessary to know ‘Why did that workshop work?’, ‘Why did that model create that result?’, ‘Why was that the best time for doing that?’, etc. Research in this discipline should be focused on understanding the relation between elements, structures and mechanisms, and why particular combinations create specific results. This is fundamental information to report back to the other disciplines.

– See more at: http://www.service-design-network.org/products-page/article/tp04-3p24/#sthash.uaxmLO9m.dpuf

Service as Knowledge – increasing the potential to act – see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/service-knowledge-increasing-potential-act-mauricio-manhaes-dr-