Eight unsolved grand challenges of AI/CogSci

To stimulate university startups, students should be learning to build, understand, and work with an open source cognitive assistant on their smartphones that helps them learn, plan their career opportunities, develop cognitive assistants for all occupations they plan to enter.

The above will become much easier, once these eight unsolved grand challenges of artificial intelligence and cognitive science have been solved:

People these capabilities developing from 0-5 years of age:
(1) minute experience (Fiore)
(2) episodic memory (Schank)

People these capabilities developing from 5-10 years of age
(3) commonsense reasoning (Lenat)
(4) social interactions (Forbus)

People these capabilities developing from 10-15
(5) fluent conversations (Klein)
(6) ingest textbooks (Etzioni)

People these capabilities developing from 15-20
(7) ingest regulations (Searle)
(8) collaboration augmentation (Engelbart)

People require about 10 millions minutes of experience to acquire these capabilities and become an adult in society.

Then adult people require about 2 million minutes of experience to go from novice to expert in an occupation or social role where experts already exist to learn from.

In slightly more detail:

(1) minute experience (Fiore) – requires representing both external inputs and internal inputs – no one really knows how one minute of experience works in a person.
(2) episodic memory (Schank) – requires building a dynamic memory that experience can be added to, and performance on certain tasks improves and does not degrade with additional experiences.
(3) commonsense reasoning (Lenat) – requires reasoning changes to be compiled for rapid memory lookup.
(4) social interactions (Forbus) – requires animal level and then beyond animal level awareness and modeling of others.
(5) fluent conversations (Klein) – very hard, how do people do it?
(6) ingest textbooks (Etzioni) – very hard, especially when diagrams are included, etc.
(7) ingest regulations (Searle) – very hard, to go beyond social rules and manners, to become good at understanding the laws and institutions that shape behavior.
(8) collaboration augmentation (Engelbart) – very hard, requires people first that people know how to collaborate, and then people with cognitive assistants to interact fluidly on tasks as well.

Jobs of the Future

Alan Kay one of my mentors at Apple during the 1990’s was well-known for saying the best way to predict the future is to invent it…..

President James Mellinchamp (Piedmont College, Georgia) just sent me this nice list of 55 jobs of the future, by Futurist Thomas Frey: http://www.futuristspeaker.com/business-trends/55-jobs-of-the-future/.

What I especially like about the list is it has different sections – Jobs Before 2020 (1-26), The Dismantlers (27-32), and Jobs After 2030 and Beyond (33-55).

Jobs Before 2020: Augmented Reality Architects, Alternative Currency Bankers, Seed Capitalists, Global System Architects, Locationists, Waste Data Manager, Urban Agriculturalists, Business Colony Managers, Competition Producers, Avatar Designers, Avatar Relationship Managers, 3D Printing Engineers, 3D Food-Printer Engineers, Book-to-App Converters, Social Education Specialists, Privacy Managers, Wind Turbine Repair Techs, Data Hostage Specialists, Smart Dust Programmers, Personality Services, Smart Contact Developers, Nano-Medics, New Science Philosopher-Ethicists, Organ Agents, Octogenarian Service Providers, Elevated Tube Transport Engineers

The Dismantlers: Prison System Dismantlers, Hospital and Healthcare Dismantlers, Income Tax System Dismantlers, Government Agency Dismantlers, Education System Dismantlers, College and University Dismantlers

Jobs in 2030 and Beyond: Drone Dispatchers,  Brain Quants, Tree-Jackers, Plant Psychologists, Extinction Revivalists, Robotic Earthworm Drivers, Gravity Pullers, Time Hackers, Clone Ranchers, Body Part & Limb Makers, Memory Augmentation Therapists, Time Brokers – Time Bank Traders,  Space-Based Power System Designers, Geoengineers – Weather Control Specialists, Plant Educators, Nano-Weapons Specialists, Lip Designers, Mass Energy Storage Developers, Earthquake Forecasters , “Heavy Air” Engineers,  Robot Polishers, Amnesia Surgeons,  Executioners for Virus-Builders

Some of my favorites bolded above – and I would like to add “Better Innovation Namers” to the list of Jobs Before 2020.   Much needed job for sure.

My own predictions are show on slide #11 here in this presentation:  http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer/understanding-20161128-v8

The summary of my predictions is that by 2025 a big job will begin to be helping people to use their cognitive assistants to be better professionals, such as doctors and lawyers – healthier-people helpers, and more-just-society helpers.  By 2035 a big job will begin to be helping people to use their cognitive mediators to launch multiple startup companies.   By 2055 a big job will begin to be helping people to use their cognitive mediators to manage better their every growing digital workforce of about 100 digital workers per 1 biological person.  Of course, the best way to predict the future is to inspire the next generation to build it better.  This “build it better” will shift and become rapidly rebuilding from scratch for a number of reasons.  To get a hint of why this is so, check out this Circular Economy: From Consumer to User video that speaks to products becoming service offerings: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cd_isKtGaf8

Here is one last perspective on jobs of the future from Andrew McAfee (MIT) in a nice podcast interview from the economist – speech recognition from a free iPhone app translated some key sections for me below…

Babbage: The automation game
How quickly will robots disrupt global industries and what will the implications be?
We explore with economist Andrew McAfee at the World Economic Forum in Davos.


[7:00] Automation vs Transformation: A clear distinction?

No, it is really not a clear distinction, because technology always does two things simultaneously: it substitutes for people, and the tasks that they do, and at the same time it’s a compliment, it’s an aid for people on the tasks that they do; sometimes even within the same job.  My exhibit A for that is bank tellers and if you remember back as soon as ATM machines came out we hear again that litany of prediction that bank tellers were about to become an endangered species, and if you look at what actually happened the number of bank tellers, in America at least, rose fairly steadily for decades because banks opened up more branches and we actually needed those tellers to do a different set of things but we still really needed those people.  We hit peak bank teller in America about a decade ago and as far as we can tell the total number of bank tellers in America has dropped by about 20% since that peak and that’s not because of one particular tech breakthrough, it’s because of a combination of ATM machines, PC banking, smartphone based banking, electronic payment systems, the technology progress is cumulative and eventually it can turn net complementing jobs into net substituting of jobs.

[9:00] Offshoring vs Automation:

America remains a manufacturing powerhouse, if you look at output.  We are second to China now, but we turn our more manufactured goods than Germany, Italy, France and India combined, and output goes up almost every non-recession year.   Now the year of peak American employment in manufacturing was 1979, and we are down a significant amount of total jobs since then.  That is not a globalization story, that is a technology story and an automation story. Tom you bring up the excellent point that we don’t see this recent amazing technology surge in the productivity statistics yet. I think that’s to be expected, if people are leaving relatively high productivity manufacturing jobs and moving into relatively low productivity service sector jobs. You would expect to see productivity as we measure it go down then.

Now what I anticipate happening is that we’re going to see a boost in service sector productivity thanks to things like excellent speech and voice recognition systems.  The ability of the new technologies to scan huge amounts of pretty unstructured information and generate a pretty clean insightful report out of that.  I think we also need to include in this discussion the overall greater material prosperity and abundance, because of tech progress, is good news.  Now job loss and wage stagnation are real concerns, and I think we see with things like Brexit and the election of Donald Trump what can happen when people feel left behind by the progress that’s going on. So I don’t mean to minimize those concerns at all, but we need to keep in mind we’re creating an overall more prosperous world.  The pressing question for us is how we share that prosperity.

[11:00] What we have to look forward to

Think about a near future where the elderly, and the disabled, and the blind can get around much more easily than they can now.  Think about a future where absolute best in the world medical diagnosis is available, not just to people who live near the great research hospitals in the world, but via pieces of technology and screens and cameras and labs on the chip and smart phones all around the world. Now that is not a science-fiction vision of the future.  Each of those things we see very clearly right now. For me the question is how do we get there while having most people feel like they’re part of that and that they are contributing to it and they have some sense of dignity and meaning and community, while these bizarre technologies are, not happening to them, but happening around them and happening in their lives and their families.  That’s the vision I would like to articulate.

Annual re-read list – my top ten books

From bottom (longest time on list) to top (shortest time on list)… I try to re-read once a year if I can… http://service-science.info/archives/4333

(10) Fagin R, Halpern JY, Moses Y, Vardi M (2004) Reasoning about knowledge. MIT press.

One of the most cited books in artificial intelligence – a must read.  Reasoning about the value of knowledge has yet to be written.

(9) Goodsell DS (2009) The machinery of life. Springer Science & Business Media.

Speed of molecules is a key insight the above: http://book.bionumbers.org/how-fast-do-molecular-motors-move-on-cytoskeletal-filaments/

(8) Moss D (2007) A concise guide to macroeconomics. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

If you only have 30 minutes – this is a fine substitute: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHe0bXAIuk0

(7) De Chardin T. Pierre (1959) The phenomenon of man. Trans. Bernard Wall. New York: Harper & Row.

A complex person I wish I had known: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Teilhard_de_Chardin

(6)  Searle JR (1995) The construction of social reality. Simon and Schuster.

Culture is amazing emergent phenomenon – and how we come to agree on certain institutional facts is fascinating.

Big impact on culture and institutional facts coming; see Doug Lenat (Dr. Commonsense Reasoning) wrote about “weak immortality” in this issue of AI Magazine article – search for “weak immortality”

(5) Peavy RV (1997) SocioDynamic Counselling: A Constructivist Perspective.  “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.” Trafford.

What is subjective experience and how can the re-telling and re-making of the stories of our lives help us adapt to tragedy and suffering?

(4)  Auerswald P (2011) The coming prosperity: How entrepreneurs are transforming the global economy. Oxford University Press.

How can we change the culture of the world to make startups the new olympic sport of choice?

(3) Kline SJ (1995) Conceptual foundations for multidisciplinary thinking. Stanford University Press.

T-shapes skills and mindset without using that terminology – socio-technical system design loop and human techno-extension factor.

(2)  Mohr BJ, Amelsvoort PV (2016) Co-creating humane and innovative organization:  Evolutions in the practice of socio-technical system design.  Global STS-D Network Press.

Service science studies socio-technical system evolution of capabilities, constraints, rights, and responsibilities.  The cost burden of responsibilities is politics.

(1) Dartnell L (2015) The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Civilization in the Aftermath of a Cataclysm. Penguin.

How can we change the culture of the world to make rebuilding rapidly from scratch a priority?

(1 above) Displaced from re-read stack (temporarily?):
Hawley AH (1986) Human ecology: A theoretical essay. University of Chicago Press.

(2 above) Displaced from re-read stack (temporarily?):
Simon HA (1996) The sciences of the artificial. MIT press.

(3 above)  Displaced from re-read stack (temporarily?):
Deacon TW (2011) Incomplete nature: How mind emerged from matter. WW Norton & Company.

Learning mechanisms – evolution, brain, culture – are important – if you don’t have time for Deacon, then a fine summary (of another book) to substitute is:

(4 above) Displaced from re-read stack (temporarily?):

Norman DA (1993) Things that make us smart: Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Basic.

However, should re-add this book, since I find I am promoting it more and more, because of discussions about intelligence augmentation as well as living with complexity.  However, I find it Auerswald’s focus on entrepreneurship key, and his new book “Code Economy” combines the entrepreneurship, recombinations, design, and augmentation themes nicely.  Still, Norman also has this more recent book that is relevant to today’s design challenges:
Norman DA (2010) Living with complexity. MIT press.https://www.amazon.com/Living-Complexity-Press-Donald-Norman/dp/0262014866/
And I also like this related book by Samuel Arbesman a lot:
Arbesman S (2016) Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension. Penguin.


Still they are not in my 2017 stack of top ten books to re-read, though I re-read them….  so many good books to re-read, and so little time…

Fiction and other genre (spiritual) go elsewhere – but my all time favorite science fiction book, which I truly love, is without a shred of doubt:

Stephenson N (1995) The Diamond Age: Or, A Young Lady’s Illustrated Primer.  Bantam Spectra.

The need for next generation cognitive curriculum

(1) For CEOs to understand cognitive

How does one win?

Tesla Gathers More Autopilot Miles in a Day Than Google Has in Its Whole Program

For CEO’s who want to truly understand cognitive, I recommend reading or listening to the following on next cross country flight…

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World 1st Edition
by Pedro Domingos (Author)

For under $20 one can get the audio version, and listen to it as well…   just 6 hours at 2-3x listening speed.

They can also read the book summary in less than one hour:

The gist is people evolved cognitive capabilities because of powerful learning processes applied to lots of experience: evolution, brain, culture.

10 million minutes experience is required to become an adult in our society.  2 million minutes more to become an expert worker – pilot, doctor, etc.

Experience is interaction with the environment and/or other cognitive entities.

How many minutes of experience do you learn from in your business or work environment every day? 600 minutes per day? what could increase this?

What are the powerful learning processes that you are applying to your front-stage customer interactions and back-stage employee/supplier interactions?

“Cognitive” is an adjective to describe the system that learns to improve performance from experience, not simply the technology or computing piece.

(2) For IBM to lead in cognitive

For next generation cognitive curriculum I have proposed….

… a lifelong learning and career planner for smartphones – cost $1M per year for 2 years for basic version and invest for 5 years for deluxe version.

A big selling point for this system is that is it will help people write their annual performance review and update their resume as well!

(3) For advanced learners… the future

… it is important to teach people about the five unsolved problems of digital cognitive systems… probably all five will be solved in 10 years…

(1) episodic memory (Schank books “Dynamic Memory” and “Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding”)
(2) commonsense reasoning (Doug Lenat’s CYC is a foundation, not a solution)
(3) social interactions (Ken Forbus had a nice piece in AI Magazine on “Software Social Organisms”)
(4) fluent conversation (Builds on the items in this list, plus Speech Acts and much more…)
(5) ingest textbooks (Allen Institute has this as a grand challenge, and SRI did some good work too)

(1) – (4) are pretty much accomplished in the first 10 million minutes of experience of a person…

(5) can be done then, but requires 2 million minutes of experience per domain for a person…

when these unsolved problems are solved, then anyone will be able to build, understand, and work with digital cognitive systems in their personal and professional life.

…just like having a service, assistant, collaborator, coach, mediator in the form of a person in your life today… but one that knows you better in some ways than you know yourself….

Here is the DRAFT video that explains all of the above in more details…

To which add this final thought/question, based on this quote from Domingos “Master Algorithm” book:

Domingos wrote: Natural learning itself has gone through three phases: evolution, the brain, and culture. Each is  product of the previous one, and each learns faster. Machine learning is the logical next stage of this progression. Computer programs are the fastest replicators on Earth: copying them takes  only a fraction of a second. But creating them is slow, if it has to be done by humans. Machine learning removes that bottleneck, leaving a final one: the speed at which humans can absorb change.

My question: Since, it takes about 10 million minutes of experience for a person, embedded in our culture, to progress to adulthood, and an additional 2 million minutes of experience more to progress from novice to expert – in areas as diverse as pilots to doctors to dancers and musicians and AI researcher….  biological cognitive systems (BCS) process one minute of experience in one minute, but digital cognitive systems (DCS) will be able to process millions of minutes of experience in a second – so booting DCS up could be quite rapid – once we understand “experience” bootup better. What is “the best representation of one minute of experience” for BCS and DCS development?

Readings that are service systems related…

Reading that are service systems related…

1. Badinelli R (2016) Modeling service systems. Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“At once staggered by the challenges of modeling service systems, I was inspired by the opportunity they offered.  We are at an exciting stage of human history.  In academic, government, industry, and social circles, recent years have broadened and deepened the realization that service has gone beyond a ubiquitous presence in our lives to become the basis of all exchange and the processes of living healthy and rewarding lives.  In the coming decades, innovative people all over the world will advance the science and engineering of service systems to the level of sophistication and utility that the preceding 100 years of development in the fields of industrial engineering and operations research has brought to manufacturing and supply chains.” p. 3


2. Casanova HB (2016) Matching services to markets: The role of the human sensorium in shaping service-intensive markets.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Driven by the inescapable basics of our biology, and acknowledging the growing insights offered by sociobiology, this book builds on the basic insight that critical to understanding any market in question, is a deeper understanding of the underlying basics of exchanges… Exchanges are at the base, structured arenas wherein process flows of information, energy, material, upon regular repetition, engrain stable complexity, of ordered process, and architecture into an otherwise entropic domain.  They locally, and for the lifetime of the living systems modulating them, prevent the local flow of entropy from drainingg it out into an inert ground state.” p. 5


3. Chang CM (2014) Achieving service excellence: Maximizing enterprise performance through innovation and technology.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Service activities transform the state of an entity (e.g., person, businesses, community, and/or region/nation) or an entities possessions.  Historically, service activities depended upon direct interactions between a customer (beneficiary) and provider (expert)… Today, service providers package expertise and resources in complex service systems of people and technology, so that they can simultaneously increase productivity and quality of both direct and indirect interactions with more and more customers.  There are for-profit and nonprofit service systems.” p. 1


4. Enz CA, Kimes SE, Siguaw JA, Verma R, Walsh K, Withiam G (2016) Achieving success through innovation: Cases and insights from the hospitality, travel, and tourism industry.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“This book highlights 55 innovative ideas that have been implemented in the hospitality indutry and its related businesses. For our purposes, an innovation can be defined as a new service, product, process or idea.  As distinct from invention, innovation may mean reapplying or adapting existing ideas in a novel way, but it also may involve coming up with a totally new concept.”  p. 1


5. Kaisler SH, Armour F, Espinosa JA, Money WH (2016) Obtaining value from big data for service delivery. Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“The Internet, the World Wide Web, and the concept of service delivery have revolutionized the way commercial, academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations deals with their supplies and their clients and customers.   Individuals and organizations are overwhelmed with data produced by IT systems that are so pervasive throughout society, government, and business.” p. 1


6. McDavid D (2016) All services, all the time: How business services serve your business.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“Business is all about shaping the resources of a generally chaotic world so as to bring forth interesting, useful, and valuable results.” p. 4


7. Reisman R (2016) FairPay: Adaptively win-win customer relationships.  Service systems and innovations in business and society collection, Editors: Spohrer J, Demirkan H.  Business Expert Press.

“FairPay is a new logic for conducting ongoing business relationships that adaptively seek win-win value propositions in which price reflects value.” p. 3


8. Wirtz, J (2017) Winning in Services Markets: Success through People, Technology, and Strategy.  World Scientific Publishing Co .

“This book will show how service businesses can be managed to achieve cutomer satisfaction and profitability.  Below are key contents of the five parts of this book: Part I: Understanding Service Products, Consumers, and Markets; Part II: Applying the 4 P’s of Marketing to Services; Part III: Managing the Customer Interface; Part IV: Developing Customer Relationships;  Part V: Striving for Service Excellence. ” p. xiv – xvi.



Decision Making Methods Evolving and Generative Pattern Languages

How do we make better decisions – individually and collectively?  Are these methods evolving over time?

I was recently trying to recall a book I had read related to this topic – and my colleague David Ing helped me remember the book I was struggling to recall…

Mitroff II, Linstone HA (1995) The unbounded mind: Breaking the chains of traditional business thinking. Oxford University Press.


David also suggested a wealth of related readings, and we hope to discuss more the next time we have a meeting together….   A key  focus area for David Ing’s research these days is generative pattern languages…

David also wrote:

I’m onboard with your idea of service science + cognitive science for rapidly rebuilding evolution.

My approach for this would be to focus on generative pattern language — and I’m using “generative” in the sense that is compatible with your idea of “evolution”.  You might look at the October 30 theoretical work at http://coevolving.com/blogs/index.php/archive/pattern-manual-for-service-systems-thinking/ , that supports the methodological work on the Dec. 2 lecture at http://coevolving.com/blogs/index.php/archive/service-systems-thinking-with-generative-pattern-language-metropolia-201612/ .  There’s actually a lot of background work (particularly on architectural thinking) in the 200-page-plus dissertation I’m closing out.  This is all fresh research for me, so discussing in person ..; could be valuable …

I think that the book you’ve asked me to recall is Business Strategies for a Messy World:  Tools for Systemic Problem Solving, 2014, by Vince Barabba and Ian Mitroff, see https://books.google.com/books?id=A3oeAgAAQBAJ .  The Toulmin Argumentation Schema aligns with the wicked problems and Issue-Based Information Systems (IBIS) from Horst Rittel.  The Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing (SAST) is Mitroff’s original extension of West Churchman’s The Design of Inquiring Systems.  …

In the systems thinking literature, I think that SAST is [too often] overlooked.  Ian Mitroff is a wealth of knowledge, and the author of 37 books.  …

If you’re going to be doing some reading, I have an alternative suggestion.  One of the major research contributions in my dissertation will be turning towards Tim Ingold, and his view on ecological anthropology.  He combines the mind and nature work of Gregory Bateson (which I think you like in Terrence Deacon) with ecological psychology of J.J. Gibson ([required for] a proper reading of affordances) with the social learning of Jean Lave (obviously popularized with Etienne Wenger).  Ingold is deep in philosophy, so much that I’ve been wending the distinctions he makes around Heidegger, Delueze, Latour and Jakob von Uexküll (who influenced Bateson … that’s the grandfather biologist at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_von_Uexk%C3%BCll , not the grandson writer).

… Tim Ingold [was] keynote speaker at IFIP WG8.2 in Dublin.  See https://ingbrief.wordpress.com/2016/12/10/20161210-0915-tim-ingold-thoughts-on-movement-growth-and-and-anthropologically-sensitive-isorganization-studies-ifip-wg8-2/ .  I got a greater appreciation for [his work and related work].  Steven Alter was at IFIP WG 8.2, too.  …

The two books from Tim Ingold that I’ve found most important are:

(1) Being Alive: Essays on Movement, Knowledge and Description (2011) at https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1136735437

(2) The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill (2000) at https://books.google.com/books?isbn=041522831X

The two additional books that fill in some other ideas are:

(3) Lines: A Brief History (2007) at https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0415424267

(4) Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture at https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1136763678

[You can also] …watch him on Youtube and Vimeo.  If you search on Youtube and then change the filters to “upload date”, you’ll see an incredible number of recent lectures from a variety of venues.  I’ve just counted 13 uploads in the last 6 months.

With your interest in service systems and cognitive systems, one word that I would like to draw attention to from Tim Ingold is “alongside”.  This is dissolving the tacit-explicit distinctions of knowledge that are central in Nonaka’s knowledge cycle, coming from Polanyi.

[Also see] … Design of Inquiring Systems, complements to the book include:

(2012) http://coevolving.com/blogs/index.php/archive/the-meta-design-of-dialogues-as-inquiring-systems/

(2012) http://isss.org/world/sanjose-2012-retrospective#basics-mitroff

I’ve now given you a lot to absorb.  Let me know if you find this direction interesting and productive.  Either way… we can have an opportunity to discuss.

In response to:

I am trying to re-focus these days on service science + cognitive science for rapidly rebuilding evolution…. less material, energy, time, space to create emergent structures… what is the speed limit of evolution? progress? type-thinking again….   think about a small robot machine that can easily rebuild itself, as well as create a population large enough so that they can collectively rebuild any machine and decision-making system know to our civilization…

HICSS presentation, and the paper it refers to is out there somewhere as well:

Our older paper:

The practical reason for this is to help students become better entrepreneurs – but the leap is so huge, I need to get some serious thinking time to make the connections more apparent…

Human-centered, smart service system NSF Workshop

Haluk Demirkan compiled this helpful list:










Reading and thinking….

“Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.”
Alfred North Whitehead, English mathematician

Recommended reading:

To better understand the socio-technical systems design loop read:
Kline, S. J. (1995). Conceptual foundations for multidisciplinary thinking. Stanford University Press. (doesn’t mention T-shaped skills, but very relevant to this concept as well)

To better understand the philosophical foundation of institutional facts read:
Searle JR. (1995). The construction of social reality. Simon and Schuster.

To better understand software social organisms read:
Forbus KD. (2016). Software Social Organisms: Implications for Measuring AI Progress. AI Magazine. Mar 1;37(1).

To better understand memory, including episodic memory read:
Schank RC. (1983). Dynamic memory: A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people. Cambridge University Press; Jan 1.

To better understand a bit, just a hint, about service science and cognitive science integration read:
Spohrer J, Banavar G. (2015). Cognition as a Service: An Industry Perspective. AI Magazine. Dec 1;36(4).

To better understand a bit more about service science read (you could also read the Handbook of Service Science, but this is a lot shorter):
Spohrer J, Maglio PP.(2008).  The emergence of service science: Toward systematic service innovations to accelerate co‐creation of value. Production and operations management. May 6;17(3):238-46.

To better understand “speed limits” to evolution and progress, read this:


If you read all of the above, we could have a really fun conversation about the better building blocks of the future.

The best way to predict the future is to inspire the next generation of students to build it better.

Currently trying to understand cognitive systems better based on my three foundations (1) my PhD from Yale is in Computer Science, specialized in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (1982-1989) – see: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=7T2Pz1YAAAAJ (scroll down to get to the Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science papers), (2) my four years doing machine learning for speech recognition and natural language understanding at the Verbex company (1978-1982) after I graduated MIT in Physics (1974-1978), and (3) my nearly ten years building intelligent tutoring systems and students models at University Rome in Italy (1989) and at Apple Computer (1989-1998).

IBM University Programs (the 6 R’s of IBM UP) include:
1. Research (ibm.com/university/awards)
2. Readiness (ibm.com/developerworks/university/academicinitiative/)
3. Recruiting (ibm.com/jobs or ibm.com/developerworks/university/students/)
4. Revenue (ibm.com/education and ibm.com/systems)
5. Responsibility (ibm.com/responsibility, ibm.com/ibm/ondemandcommunity and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Community_Grid)
6. Regions (ibm.com/partnerworld/isv/startup)
Local “On Campus IBMers” (where available) help with the above…

IBM UP Priorities  include:
1. Smarter Cities & Service Innovation
2. Cloud & Analytics/DEEP QA, including High Performance Systems & Cybersecurity, Social Business
3. Growth Markets universities linked to Developed Markets universities to accelerate regional innovation
Doing more with less is the theme throughout business and societal systems, and to do this sustainably year over year…
Doing more with less decision-making & investment discipline: Run-Transform-Innovate or Iterate-Imitate-Innovate (I-cubed)
I-cubed investment discipline steadily automates “Iterate” (5%/yr cost cut) lowering costs, to invest more in “Imitate & Innovate”
I-cubed is Moore’s Law equivalent for business & societal systems (smarter service systems improve as IT capabilities grow)
I-cubed supports escaping the pull of the past and escaping the commodity trap

View of University Priorities  include:
1. Knowledge transfer (teaching) – student tuition & government loans
2. Knowledge creation (research) – government grants & corporate partners
3. Knowledge application (entrepreneurship) – local incentives & alumni donations
4. Knowledge integration (bridge silos) – lowers costs without compromising depth
University business model is evolving (to fund the above, and continuously renew physical infrastructure)…
Some universities, governments, and businesses are adopting I-cubed investment discipline to do more with less year over year.
I-cubed investment discipline can be applied to education as a service system for continuous improvement


While I really like this quote, one possible implication is consciousness goes to zero.  Perhaps there are other possibilities too.  For example, read this:  De Chardin T. Pierre. (1959). The phenomenon of man. Trans. Bernard Wall. New York: Harper & Row.


Understanding Cognitive Systems

My mission is “understanding cognitive systems” – what does that mean?  People, dogs, cats, crows, and even bees and ants are cognitive systems with social intelligence, and someday so will our smart phones, our homes, our offices, our cars, and yes, even our clothes will be cognitive systems with social intelligence.  Hard to believe in 2016, but I bet it is coming. Socio-technical hint: Someday everything will have some form of blockchain episodic memory about its interactions for legal reasons.  Even businesses and governments will become cognitive businesses and cognitive governments, cognitive system entities with episodic memories and social intelligence.

I am trying to understand how people build, understand, and work with cognitive systems.  Digital cognitive systems are progressing from tool to assistant to collaborator to coach to mediator.  This is an evolutionary progression – a progression of both technology (capability) and trust (responsibility).   Do you trust your smart phone?  To me this is a hard research problem – trying to understand socio-technical system design and evolution. This type of research is a kind of transdisciplinary integration of service science and cognitive science.  It requires thinking a lot about people-centered systems redesign.  That is the kind of research I enjoy doing the most.  Caution: Powerful things can be misused – guns, planes, trucks, computers, and words.  People-centered systems redesign has to take this into account: as the building blocks get better, so must the wisdom and responsibility of the people using them.  That is the really hard part.  If you are interested in this type of research too – I recommend reading these books and articles – and then we can have a good conversation:

Curating open source AI and data sets, especially for smartphones

Curating pointers to open source AI/Intelligent Tutoring Systems software and data sets, especially interested smartphone implementations.


Abbeel_P (Berkeley): https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pabbeel/
Pointers: Berkeley, CMU, Stanford faculty.  MOOC organizations.
Great video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NDEzdg-Qsg


AI Resources: http://airesources.org/
Pointers: ?


Aleven V (CMU): http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~aleven/
Co-Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
Pointers: Some incorporated herein
plans for open sourcing CTAT/Tutorshop but are not very far along
Carolyn Rosé has open source tools for building conversational agents


Anki: http://ankisrs.net/


Brunskill E (CMU,Stanford): http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~ebrun/
Pointers: ?


ClearSighted: http://www.clearsighted.org/ITS.html


Coursera: https://www.coursera.org/
Pointers: ?


CrowdFlower: http://www.crowdflower.com
Article: https://www.crowdflower.com/machine-learning-with-crowdflower/


Currimbhoy Z (Evernote AI): https://blog.evernote.com/blog/2014/12/18/meet-evernote-zeesha-currimbhoy/


DataShop, Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center (LearnLab): https://pslcdatashop.org
Pointers: ?


Fox A (Berkeley): http://www.armandofox.com/p/home.html
Pointers: Berkeley faculty.


GNUTutor: http://www.gnututor.com/


TensorFlow: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/13/google-updates-tensorflow-open-source-artificial-intelligence

Ground (Berkeley): http://www.ground-context.org/

Gradescope: https://gradescope.com/


Griffiths T (Berkeley): http://cocosci.berkeley.edu/tom/index.php
Pointers: ?


Hearst M (Berkeley): http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hearst/
Pointers: ?


Huang G (Peking U): http://sei.pku.edu.cn/~huanggang/index_en.htm
Pointers: Discovered.
Yan Cloud, deep learning on GitHub


i-tutor: https://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/project/i-tutor
Pointers: ?


IEDMS (International Educational Data Mining Society): http://educationaldatamining.org


iTalk2Learn: http://www.italk2learn.eu/


Kahn S (Kahn Academy): https://www.khanacademy.org/
Pointers: ?


Krify: https://krify.co/artificial-intelligence-making-smartphones-smarter/
Pointers: ?

Lindstedt JK (RPI): https://github.com/CogWorks/Tetris-AI
Pointers: ?

Miller S (IBM): Data Sciences
Pointer: Ground at Berkeley http://www.ground-context.org/

Minton S (InferLink): http://www.inferlink.com/stevenminton/
Pointers: AI Resources


Mobile Gap: http://www.mobilegap.net/
Pointers: Lots of open source games for smartphones


MyCBR: http://www.mycbr-project.net/index.html
Pointers: ?


Mycroft: https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/mycroft-open-source-artificial-intelligence#/
Pointers: ?


OpenAI: https://openai.com/about/

Pointers: ?


Gym: https://gym.openai.com/


Pardos Z (Berkeley): https://gse.berkeley.edu/people/zachary-pardos

Pointers: Incorporated herein.

Deep learning for learning representations of mooc resources:https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.04789


Rafferty, A: https://sites.google.com/site/annanrafferty/

Pointers ?


Soloway E (UMichigan): http://www.soe.umich.edu/people/profile/elliot_soloway/

Pointers: Incorporated herein, teaching kids to build smartphone apps


Stamper J (CMU): http://hcii.cmu.edu/people/john-stamper

Pointers: Discovered TutorGen, DataShop, IEDMS


TutorGen: http://www.tutorgen.com

Pointers: ?


Udacity: https://www.udacity.com/

Pointers: ?


Udemy: https://www.udemy.com/

Pointers: ?


Zicari R: http://www.dbis.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=9

Pointers: Discovered.

Article: http://www.odbms.org/blog/2016/10/how-the-11-5-million-panama-papers-were-analysed-interview-with-mar-cabra/



Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less. – Marie Curie


Learning to learn is a skill, based primarily on navigating moods, from learning blocking moods to learning supporting moods.  – Denning and Flores


Toward Open Source AI for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Chatbot App for Smartphones – with dynamic, episodic memory system

TODO Reading



Collins C, Pearl M (2016) Born on Third Base: A One Percenter Makes the Case for Tackling Inequality, Bringing Wealth Home, and Committing to the Common Good. Chelsea Green Publishing



[NPR recommended]



Garten J (2016) From Silk to Silicon: The Story of Globalization Through Tem Extraordinary Lives. Amberley Publishing Limited.


[NPR recommended]



Grant AM, Sandberg S (2016) Originals: how non-conformists move the world. Viking.


[Jeff Saperstein recommended]



Lei T, Barzilay R, Jaakkola T (2016) Rationalizing neural predictions. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.04155.Jun 13.


[Dharmendra Modha recommended]



Mohr BJ, Van Amelsvoort P (Eds.) (2015) Co-creating Humane and Innovative Organizations: Evolutions in the Practice of Socio-Technical System Design.  Global STS-D Network Press.


[JCS Found – read part, and gave away – reorder]